Women's new roles II Birgitta Jansson 101201. Parents – Collective and private welfare – Society supports families – Family “haven in a heartless world”
Published byModified over 5 years ago
Presentation on theme: "Women's new roles II Birgitta Jansson 101201. Parents – Collective and private welfare – Society supports families – Family “haven in a heartless world”"— Presentation transcript:
Parents – Collective and private welfare – Society supports families – Family “haven in a heartless world” Interfere? The norm two children
Welfare regimes Family, market, government Cumulative market failure – Both market and family fails to take care of elderly Logic alternative – the welfare state Familialism – Male bread-winner – female housewife De-familialism – Away from the traditional family
Fewer births, smaller and less stable families Ageing population New life style for young women – Education – Employment – Then children if possible (child care) Reconcile work and family
Child penalty – Rising with mother´s earnings – Maternity leave (parental) – Child care costs Low income – cannot afford Fewer children If stable working contracts – more children
Postponement – Catching up in some countries Probabilities for having a second child – if family policy good Husband help with children – Reduce the opportunity cost of motherhood – Feminization of men's lives Soft jobs where a career break is ok
Need a welfare model that guarantee universal and high-quality child care Market failure – information and the cost Sweden subsidizing 85 per cent of the costs But – Women have to stay in employment at higher age – Sweden women aged 55-64 years 65 percent still working – France only 25 per cent and Italy 16 percent
New family policy Defamilialization – Undermine family solidarity? – Efficiency – Equity – Public expenditure
Equalising life chances Skills and human capital Parents invests in their children's education – Genetics – Education – governments Rising income inequalities – Child poverty – Top and bottom
Lone mothers – Poor – Working Immigrants – Fertility – Not education and skills Family effect – Income, time investment and learning culture
Intergenerational income mobility – Probability to end up in the same quintile as parent generation – Transfers to poor families Time investment – Highly educated – fathers spend more time with children – High educated parents 20 percent more time – External care good after child 1 year old if good quality
Learning culture – Cultural baggage – School choices – Actively stimulate Pre-school – universal access – Can compensate unequal cultural capital – Mothers employment children under 3 years old – Equal start for all children?
Demographic challenge Ageing population – Rich high educated live longer – Do not have to depend on children for survival Familialism weakened Old age poverty – Retirement – Insurance – Pension reforms?
Discussion Who's views? Who will take care? Immigrants? Legal – illegal – Low educated women takes care of high educated women's problem – Class?