2 What is Business Intelligence? Information that contains patterns, relationship, trends, etc.Intelligent processing: The information needs to be found or producedChallenge: There is not too much data for humans to analyze.
3 Business Intelligence Tools Reporting Tools – Wagemart Lab is a great examplereduced a complex database into Total Cost and Average RatingData Mining Tools – Market Basket LabFound association rules with the highest confidence and qualityWalmart likely has a Petabytes of data1,000,000,000,000,000 bytesOnline Analytical Processing (OLAP) – Pivot ChartSliced the data by dimension to find relationshipsDrilled down to find more subtle patterns
4 Q1 – Why do organizations need business intelligence? Computers gather and store enormous amounts of data. 403 petabytes of new data were created in 2002.An estimated 2,500 petabytes, or 2.5 exabytes of new data were generated in 2007.Business intelligence is comprised of information that contains patterns, relationships, and trends about customers, suppliers, business partners, and employees.Business intelligence systems process, store, and provide useful information to users who need it, when they need it.
6 Q2 – What business intelligence systems are available? A BI tool is a computer program that implements the logic of a particular procedure or process.A BI application uses BI tools on a particular type of data for a particular purpose.A BI system is an information system that has all five components (hardware, software, data, procedures, people) that delivers the results of a BI application to users.
7 Q3 – What are typical reporting applications? Basic reporting operations include sorting, grouping, calculating, filtering, and formatting.This figure shows raw data before any reporting operations are used.Fig 9-2 Raw Sales Data
8 Q3 – What are typical reporting applications? This figure shows even better information that’s been filtered and formatted according to specific criteria.Fig 9-5 Sales Data Filtered to Show Repeat Customers
9 Q3 – What are typical reporting applications? RFM AnalysisR = how recently a customer purchased your productsF = how frequently a customer purchases your productsM = how much money a customer typically spends on your productsThe lower the score, the better the customer.Fig 9-6 Example of RFM Score Data
10 Q3 – What are typical reporting applications? Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) is more generic than RFMdynamic ability to sum, count, averageReports, also called OLAP cubes, useDimensions which are characteristics of a measure. In the figure below a dimension is Product Family.Fig 9-7 OLAP Product Family by Store Type
11 Q3 – What are typical reporting applications? This figure shows how you can alter the format of a report to provide users with the information they need to do their jobs.Fig 9-8 OLAP Product Family & Store Location by Store Type
12 Q3 – What are typical reporting applications? This figure shows how you can divide data into more detail by drilling down through the data.Fig 9-9 OLAP Product Family & Store Location by Store Type, Drilled Down to Show Stores in California
13 Q3 – What are typical reporting applications? OLAP servers are special products that read data from an operational database, perform some preliminary calculations, and then store the results in an OLAP databaseFig 9-10 Role of OLAP Server & OLAP Database
14 Q4 – What are typical data-mining applications? statistical techniques to find patterns and relationshipsclassification and prediction.Data mining techniques are a blend of statistics and mathematics, and artificial intelligence and machine-learning.
15 Q4 – What are typical data-mining applications? Unsupervised data-mining characteristics:No model or hypothesis exists before running the analysisAnalysts apply data-mining techniques and then observe the resultsAnalysts create a hypotheses after analysis is completedCluster analysis, a common technique in this category groups entities together that have similar characteristics
16 Q4 – What are typical data-mining applications? Supervised data-mining characteristics:Analysts develop a model prior to their analysisApply statistical techniques to estimate parameters of a modelRegression analysis is a technique in this category that measures the impact of a set of variables on another variableNeural networks predict values and make classifications
17 Q4 – What are typical data-mining applications? Market-Basket Analysis is a data-mining tool for determining sales patterns.helps businesses create cross-selling opportunities.Support—the probability that two items will be purchased togetherP(AB)Confidence—a conditional probability estimateA B = P(AB)/P(A)ABCD EF = P(ABCDEF)/P(ABCD)
19 Q4 – What are typical data-mining applications? A decision tree is a hierarchical arrangement of criteria that predicts a classification or value.It’s an unsupervised data-mining technique that selects the most useful attributes for classifying entities on some criterion.It uses if…then rules in the decision process.Pivot Chart Lab combines Data Mining + OLAPPivot Chart is an OLAP report that helped us find important attributes, cutoffs and patternsBut eventually we used the results to make a hypothesis to help make predictionsFig 9-14 Credit Score Decision Tree
20 Q5 – What is the purpose of data warehouses and data marts?
21 Q5 – What is the purpose of data warehouses and data marts? Here’s the difference between adata warehouse and adata mart
22 Q6 – What are typical knowledge-management applications? The characteristics and goals of knowledge management applications and systems are toCreate value for an organization from its intellectual capitalShare knowledge among and between employees, managers, suppliers, and customersInclude knowledge that is known to exist in documents or employees’ brains