Chapter 15: Atmosphere. Earth’s Atmosphere 1. What is atmosphere?1. The atmosphere is the Earth’s air which is made up of a thin layer of gases, solids,
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Earth’s Atmosphere 1. What is atmosphere?1. The atmosphere is the Earth’s air which is made up of a thin layer of gases, solids, and liquids. The atmosphere forms a protective layer around the planet and is divided into 5 distinct layers.
Earth’s Atmosphere 2. What is the makeup of gases in our atmosphere? 2. 71% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% Trace Elements The composition is changing. For example, increasing energy use is increasing the amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere. http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/23246- wonders-of-weather-defining-the-atmosphere- video.htm
Earth’s Atmosphere 3.What are the layers of the atmosphere? 3. There are 5 layers: Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Exosphere
Earth’s Atmosphere 4. What is the troposphere? 4. The troposphere extends up to 10km high; it contains 75% of the mass of the atmosphere. Weather occurs in the troposphere. In most cases, temperature decreases with altitude.
Earth’s Atmosphere 5. What is the stratosphere? 5. Extends from 10km to 50 km Contains the ozone layer which absorbs the sun’s harmful UV rays. Temperature increases with height due to sunlight absorbed by the sun. http://www.howstuffworks.com/search.php?terms=earth%2 7s+atmosphere&gallery=1&media=video
Earth’s Atmosphere 5. What is the mesosphere? 5. The mesosphere extends 50-85 km high. Most meteors from space burn up in this layer. Temperature here decreases with height and temperatures can range from 23 degrees F to −112°F. Low air pressure and low amounts of oxygen.
Earth’s Atmosphere 6. What is the thermosphere? 6. The thermosphere extends from 85 km to 500 km. Contains very hot temperatures- up to 1000 degrees Celsius. Thickest layer ------------------------------------------------- Although the measured temperature is very hot, the thermosphere would actually feel very cold to us because the total energy of only a few air molecules residing there would not be enough to transfer any appreciable heat to our skin. FYI -------------------
Earth’s Atmosphere 7. What is the ionosphere? http://videos.howstuffwork s.com/nasa/2067-nasa- looks-at-the-aurora- borealis-video.htm 7. Within the mesosphere and thermosphere, the ionosphere or an electrically charged layer is located. The ionosphere allows radio waves to travel across earth. Think: magnetic field Solar wind is located here. The beauty of the auroras or Northern Lights
Pictures of auroras http://www.exploratorium.edu/learning _studio/auroras/auroraslook.htmlhttp://www.exploratorium.edu/learning _studio/auroras/auroraslook.html http://www.gi.alaska.edu/aurora_predi ct/worldmap6.html
Earth’s Atmosphere 8. What is the exosphere 8. Uppermost layer of the atmosphere and extends up from 500 km to 10,000 km The region where atoms and molecules escape into space is referred to as the exosphere. This is the true upper limit of the Earth's atmosphere. The exosphere extends from the thermosphere out to space. Daytime temps- 1000 degrees F. Night temps- absolute zero ( about -200 to -460 degrees)
Earth’s atmosphere 9. What is ultraviolet radiation? 9. Ultraviolet radiation is a form of energy traveling through space. The sun is a major source of ultraviolet rays Too much exposure to UV radiation can cause sunburns, cancer, gene mutation
Earth’s Atmosphere 10. What is the ozone layer? 10. Thin layer of between 19 km and 48 km that protects us from the harmful UV rays of the sun. UV rays in small amounts provides Vitamin D which is important for bones. Long term exposure from UV rays causes skin damage and cancer.
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere 15. What is heat? 15. Heat is energy that flows from one object to another. Heat is transferred via radiation, conduction, and convection.
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere 16. What is radiation? 16. Radiation is the energy that is transferred in the form of rays or waves.
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere 17. What is conduction? 17. Conduction occurs when molecules bump into each other. In warm objects, the molecules are moving faster. In cool objects, molecules are moving slower. http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/847 9-exploring-heat-conduction-video.htm
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere 18. What is convection? 18. Convection is the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by movement of currents http://www.quia.com/pop/10875.html?AP_rand=2081959177 http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw /5978-heat-convection-video.htm
Air Movement 19. What is the Coriolis Effect? 19. The Coriolis effect causes moving air and water to turn left in the southern hemisphere and turn right in the northern hemisphere due to Earth’s rotation.
Air Movement 20. What are jet streams? 20. Jet streams are high-speed high-altitude airstreams blowing from west to east near the top of the troposphere; has important effects of the formation of weather... Jets going east fly faster than jets flying west.
Air Movement 21. What is a sea breeze? 21. Movement of air toward the land from water.
Air Movement 22. What is a land breeze? 22. Land breeze is the movement of air toward the water from the land.
Land and Sea Breezes http://www.classzone.com/books/earth _science/terc/content/visualizations/es 1903/es1903page01.cfm?chapter_no =visualization