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Biochemistry: Carbohydrates

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry: Carbohydrates"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry: Carbohydrates

2 Carbon’s Unique Characteristics
How many valence electrons does carbon have? How many other atoms can each carbon atom covalently bond with?

3 Monomers & Polymers Monomer: Small molecules used as a sub-unit of polymers Polymer: Large molecules of 3-millions of monomers of the same or different kinds

4 Condensation Reaction
Enzymes split an OH from one molecule & an H atom from another & a covalent bond forms.

5 Hydrolysis A cleavage reaction where enzymes split molecules at specific groups, then attach one OH group and an H atom from a water molecule.

6 Five Sense Biochemistry
Crave thy Carbohydrates

7 What is the PURPOSE of carbohydrates in our diet?
Energy Structure Energy Transport Energy Storage

8 Carbohydrate Chemistry
Main Elements: Carbon, hydrogen & oxygen The Standard Ratio is 1:2:1 or (CH2O)n

9 Class of Carbohydrate: Monosaccharide
Simple carbohydrates Single carbon ring (monomer) Examples: Glucose, galactose, fructose, ribose, & deoxyribose

10 Class of Carbohydrate: Oligosaccharide
A short chain of covalently bonded monosaccharides. Often used as transport sugars Examples: Sucrose, lactose & maltose

11 Class of Carbohydrate: Polysaccharide
Complex carbohydrates, straight or branched chains of MANY sugar monomers.

12 Polysaccharides Cellulose: Structural component in plant cells

13 Starch: Energy storage molecule in plants
Polysaccharide Starch: Energy storage molecule in plants

14 Polysaccharide— Glycogen:
Sugar storage molecule in animals (muscles & liver)

15 Chitin: External skeleton component of
Polysaccharide Chitin: External skeleton component of many animals

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