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Presentation on theme: "DISEASE AND PANDEMICS Brijesh Patel."— Presentation transcript:


2 Table of Contents Influenza of 1918 SARS Smallpox Tuberculosis AIDS

3 Thought Provoking Questions
What are diseases and how have they impacted the world? How can we prevent outbreaks of disease in the future? Is it possible to stop new diseases from emerging and mutations of viruses?

4 Influenza of 1918 Originated in China because of a genetic shift in the flu virus. The flu was most deadly for people aged Symptoms resembled those of the regular flu.

5 Killed 20 -40 million people in a span of one year.
Infected a fifth of the world’s population. 675,000 Americans died because of the flu, which was twice the amount that died in the war. Average life span in the United States was depressed by 10 years after the war. 2.5% mortality rate Treatment was never found because the virus disappeared after 1918.

6 SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: a respiratory disease in humans caused by the SARS coronavirus. Symptoms: high fever, headaches, body aches, dry cough, and pneumonia. Spread by close person-to-person contact

7 There has only been one pandemic between November 2002 and June 2003.
8000 known infected cases, of which 774 died. 9.6% fatality rate. originated in China and spread to 37 different countries within weeks. Is fully contained; last case was in June, 2003. Antivirals were given for treatment . People were quarantined to prevent it from spreading.

8 Smallpox Smallpox is an infectious disease caused by two variants: Variola major and Variola minor. Transmission occurs through inhalation of the virus. Symptoms: fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, and raised bumps

9 Smallpox first appeared in the middle ages in Europe and became established in Europe and Asia by the 16th century. Spread because of European imperialism . By 18th century, smallpox was a major disease everywhere in the world; it killed 400,000 Europeans each year. During the 20th century, smallpox was responsible for million deaths. Affected mainly children in in periodic epidemics. It has a fatality rate of 30% Smallpox was eradicated in December, 1979 Treatment: vaccination was created consisting of Variola Minor.

10 Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Transmission occurs when a person inhales the bacteria from the air. Symptoms are flu like and also include pneumonia and chest pain. Bacteria spreads from lungs to other systems if left untreated.

11 1/3 of the world’s population has been infected with Tuberculosis.
The percentage of people with Tuberculosis stays stable each year but the number of new cases still increases because of population growth. It affects developing countries much more because of the poverty levels in those countries. In 2007, India had 2 million new cases. It mostly affects children and older people because of their weak immune systems Tuberculosis is occurring more among middle aged people because of the spread of AIDS.

12 AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the immune system caused by the HIV virus. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or bloodstream with infected blood, semen, and breast milk. Symptoms of AIDS: more prone to infection, cervical cancer, and cancers of the immune system. Infections that are developed depend on the area in which the patient lives.

13 AIDS most likely began in Africa according to researchers.
Since June 5, 1981, AIDS has killed more than 25 million people and infected 40 million others. In 2007, 33.2 million people lived with AIDS worldwide and it killed 2.1 million people. ¾ of these deaths occurred in Africa. Researchers predict that AIDS will cause 31 million deaths in India, 18 million in China, and over 100 million in Africa. AIDS is a retrovirus: an RNA virus that invades the DNA of the cell. There is no cure or vaccine for HIV but retrovirals are used for treatment. Prevention is the only way to stop AIDS as of now.


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