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Chapter 4. Big Question  A priest who tended a monastery garden in Europe.  A scientist who experimented with heredity, traits, and genetics on his.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4. Big Question  A priest who tended a monastery garden in Europe.  A scientist who experimented with heredity, traits, and genetics on his."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4

2 Big Question

3  A priest who tended a monastery garden in Europe.  A scientist who experimented with heredity, traits, and genetics on his garden.  The father of genetics.

4  Mendel decided to cross plants with contrasting traits.  He started with two purebred plants in the parental generation.  The first filial generation all had one trait.  In the second filial generation the plants were allowed to self-pollinate resulting in a mixture of traits.

5  Genes are factors that control a trait.  Alleles are the different forms of a gene.  An organism’s traits are controlled by the alleles it inherits from its parents.  Some alleles are dominant, while other alleles are recessive. A dominant allele is one whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present. A recessive allele is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present.  A hybrid organism has two different alleles for a trait.

6  Through his experiments Mendel was able to conclude that… Genetic information controls the inheritance of traits. The female parent contributes one factor while the male contributes another. One factor in a pair can mask the other one.

7 Big Question

8  A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.  The laws of probability predict what is likely to occur, not necessarily what will occur.  Events occur independently from one another.

9 Big Question

10  The results of genetic crosses can be predicted by the laws of probability.

11  Punnett Squares are charts that show all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.  In a genetic cross, the allele that each parent will pass on to its offspring is based on probability.  You can use a Punnett square to predict probabilities.

12  An organism’s phenotype is its physical appearance, or visible traits. An organism’s genotype is its genetic makeup, or allele combinations.  An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait is said to be homozygous for that trait.  An organism that has two different alleles for a trait is heterozygous for that trait.

13  In codominance, the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive. As a result, both alleles are expressed in the offspring.

14 Big Question

15  To one another because genes are carried from parents to offspring on chromosomes.

16  Sex cells only have half the number of chromosomes that the body’s cells have.  When a sperm cell and an egg cell join during fertilization the fertilized egg has 24 chromosomes resulting from the 12 chromosomes from each parent.

17  Meiosis is the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells.  During Meiosis, the chromosome pairs separate and are distributed to two different cells. The resulting sex cells have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism.

18 Big Question

19  Controlling the production of proteins which determine the traits of an organism.

20  Chromosomes are composed mostly of DNA.  A gene is a section of a DNA molecule that contains the information to code for one specific protein.  A gene is made up of a series of bases in a row.  Each gene is located at a specific place on a chromosome.  The order of the nitrogen bases along a gene forms a genetic code that specifies what type of protein will be produced.

21  The production of proteins is called protein synthesis.  During protein synthesis, the cell uses information from a gene on a chromosome to produce a specific protein.  mRNA brings DNA from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.  RNA has uracil instead of thymine as a nitrogen base and has a different sugar.  tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome and adds them to the growing protein.

22  A mutation is any change in a gene or chromosome.  Mutations can cause a cell to produce an incorrect protein during protein synthesis. As a result, the organism’s trait, or phenotype, may be different from what it normally would have been.  Mutations can be either harmful or helpful and cause genetic variety.

23 Chapter 5

24 Big Question

25  That some human traits are controlled by single genes with two alleles, and others by single genes with multiple alleles.  Still other traits are controlled by many genes that act together.

26  A number of human traits are controlled by a single gene with one dominant allele and one recessive allele.  These human traits have two distinctly different phenotypes, or physical appearances.

27  Genes like this are said to have multiple alleles – three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait.

28  Some human traits show a large number of phenotypes because the traits are controlled by many genes.  The genes act together as a group to produce a single trait.

29  The sex chromosomes carry genes that determine whether a person is male or female. They also carry genes that determine other traits.  Girls have the two sex chromosomes called X chromosomes.  Boys have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.

30  The genes for some human traits are carried on the sex chromosome. These are called sex-linked genes.  An example of a sex-linked gene is the trait of red-green colorblindness.

31  Many of a person’s characteristics are determined by an interaction between genes and the environment.

32 Big Question

33  The mutations in the DNA of genes.  Changes in the structure of genes  Changes in the number of chromosomes.  Some examples are: Cystic fibrosis Sickle-cell disease Hemophilia Down syndrome

34  Doctors use tools such as karyotypes to help diagnose genetic disorders. People with genetic disorders are helped through medical care, education, job training and other methods. A karyotype is a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell. Genetic counselling helps couples understand their chances of having a child with a particular genetic disorder.

35 Big Question

36  Selective breeding, cloning, and genetic engineering. Selective breeding is the process of selective organisms with desired traits to be parents of the next generation.  Inbreeding involves crossing two individuals that have similar characteristics.  Hybridization breeders cross two genetically different individuals. A clone is an organism that has exactly the same genes as the organism from which it was produced.

37 Genetic engineering is a process when genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism.  In bacteria  In other organisms  In gene therapy  In genetic engineering

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