2 Protein SynthesisRibonucleic acid, RNA, plays a role in protein synthesis.Central ConceptDNA RNA protein
3 A. RNA Structure & Function Differences in RNA than in DNASugar ribose instead of deoxyriboseNitrogenous base uracil instead thymineSingle stranded instead of double strandedShorter than DNA
4 Types of RNAMessenger RNA (mRNA) – carries instructions from a gene to make a proteinRibosomal RNA (rRNA) –part of the structure of ribosomesTransfer RNA (tRNA) – transfer amino acids to the ribosomes to make a protein
5 B. TranscriptionThe process by which the genetic instructions in a specific gene are transcribed into an RNA molecule.Takes place in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and in the DNA-containing region in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.Figure of Prentice Hall Biology
7 RNA EditingAfter the RNA is produced, it must be edited before it can be used.Introns are removed and exons are spliced together before the RNA leaves the nucleus.
8 C. The Genetic CodeThe term for the rules that relate how a sequence of nitrogenous bases in nucleotides corresponds to a particular amino acid.Three adjacent nucleotides (“letters”) in mRNA specify an amino acid (“word”)Three adjacent nucleotides are called a codon and encodes for an amino acid or signifies a start or stop signal.
9 No codon encodes more than one amino acid No codon encodes more than one amino acid. There are 64 possible codons and amino acids are can be specified by more than one codon.A start codon is a specific sequence of nucleotides in mRNA that indicates where translation should begin. AUG.Three stop codons are specific sequences of nucleotides in mRNA that indicates where translation should end.
11 D. TranslationDecoding of the genetic instructions to form a polypeptideTakes place on the surface of the ribosomeProtein structureMade of one or more polypeptidesPolypeptides are chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.Only 20 different amino acidsThe amino acids sequence determines how the polypeptides will twist and fold into the protein. The shape of the protein is critical to its function.
12 TranslationFigure 12-18Beginning at the start codon, tRNA carrying an amino acid pairs its anticodons pair up with the complementary codon on the mRNA.This continues as an assembly line linking the amino acids and breaking bonds between the tRNA and the amino acids.The linked amino acids form a polypeptide until a stop codon is reached.
13 E. The Human Genome A genome is the complete genetic content. Biologists have now decoded the order of the 3.2 billion base pairs in the 23 human chromosomes.Bioinformatics compares different DNA sequences to try to determine what information the DNA codon encodes.
14 DNA Nitrogen Base – the “rung on the ladder” Gene – Short Segment of double helixNitrogen Base – the “rung on the ladder”Deoxyribose – “sugar side of the ladder”Nucleotide – composed of 3 parts floating free in the cytoplasmDNA – the double helix