2 Culture and Differences in Culture Chapter ThreeCultureand Differences in Culture
3 Our plan for first half of today What is culture?Social StructureCulture and the WorkplaceCultural ChangeBombay Tyre case
4 Last week: Political economy Political systems: They differ radically from one country to the nextThe ease of doing business varies with the systemYou have to understand the rules where you areLevel and nature of economic development also differs radically from one place to the nextGross National Income (GNI) and Purchasing Power Parity GNI measure the differences
6 What is Culture?“The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes one human group from another” - HofstedeText has several definitions. And there are good reasons for being aware of several definitions, because there is no agreed on definition of culture.A 19th century anthropologist defined culture as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society.”Wow! Everything!“Culture” / values, norms vs. Institutions / rules of the game as different ways of capturing what’s going on in a society.If you want to understand politics and economics and political/economic differences, think in terms of institutions/rules of the game. It’s an economist or political scientist’s way to analyze what’s happening. It tries to make things simple.Culture / values, norms – a way used by some sociologists or anthropoligists. They want to acknowledge the full complexity of the human experience.
7 Components of Culture: One standard approach Values – basic attitudes about what is importantNorms – social rulesSocietyValues – core ideas – freedom in US;group harmony in JapanNorms – social rules that govern action –Mores – we’ve gotten so individualistic and there are so many cultures in San Jose that it’s hard to define a more. In Japan – big companies practice lifetime employment for their elite workers.Folkways – Our attitude towards time. I’ll let you be a minute late. I’m struggling to prevent you from being more than that. Couldn’t do that in Peru, Italy.
8 Values – assumptions about how things ought to be Values form the bedrock of a cultureThey provide the context within which a society’s norms are established and justifiedThey include attitudes towardIndividual freedomDemocracyTruthJusticeHonestyLoyaltySocial obligationsValues are also reflected in the political and economic systemsReturn
9 NormsNorms are the social rules that govern people’s actions toward one anotherFolkways – little moral significanceAmericans expect you to come on time to appointmentsIn Italy, people weren’t usually on timeMoresNorms seen as central to functioning of societyMarriageHonesty
10 Culture, Society, and the Nation State There is not a strict one-to-one correspondence between a society and a nation stateNation State:Is a political creationMay contain a single culture or several culturesCanadaIndiaMulti-tribal African nations
11 Societies contain subcultures ethnic culturesbusiness or professional cultures
12 The Determinants of Culture The values and norms of a culture do not emerge fully formed. They are the evolutionary product of a number of factors, including the prevailing political and economic philosophies, the social structure of a society, and the dominant religion, language, and education systems as shown in this figure.Figure 3.1 – The Determinants of Culture, p. 93
13 Social StructureSocial structure refers to its basic social organizationTwo dimensions that are particularly important include:The extent to which society is group or individually orientedDegree of stratification into castes or classesGroup-oriented = Collectivism (Japan, China)Stratification – India, Englandnot the same as gap between rich and poor, though correlated with it.Peru, Mexico – tends to be a stratification between people associated with the old cultures from the rural areas and European-dominated elites.In England and also in Peru, if you make money you still have to build connections in the elite if you want to be elite.Changing with globalization?Is globalization creating its own castes?
14 Religious and Ethical Systems Religion: a system of shared beliefs and rituals that are concerned with the realm of the sacredEthical systems: a set of moral principles, or values, that are used to guide and shape behaviorMost of the world’s ethical systems are the product of religionsAmong the thousands of religions in the world today, four dominate in terms of numbers of adherents:Christianity with 1.7 billion adherentsIslam with 1 billion adherentsHinduism with 750 million adherentsBuddhism with 350 million adherents
15 Religious and Ethical Systems Map 3.1 The Map of World Religions, p. 97
16 Religions are hugely important, but Prof Religions are hugely important, but Prof. Hill may not be too expert on themI am not holding you responsible for the information about specific religions on ppBut the sidebars on ‘Islamic capitalism’ and ‘McDonald’s and Hindu culture’ illustrate well how religion interacts with business
17 Language Spoken Unspoken Verbal cues Language structures perception of worldUnspokenBody languagePersonal spaceOne obvious way in which countries differ is language. By language, we mean both the spoken and the unspoken means of communication.
18 Be alert for unexpected meanings of ‘silent language’ ColorsBlack symbolizes death in U.S.White indicates death in AsiaPurple indicates death in (some situations in) Latin AmericaGesturesSideways head movement that means ‘yes’ in Greece looks like negative ‘no’ head shake in U.S.See book p 66 for alternative readings of US ‘OK’ gesture.
20 Culture in the Workplace Four dimensions of culturePower distance – the extent to which people are comfortable with inequalities of power and wealthUncertainty avoidance - the extent to which people accept ambiguous situations and tolerate uncertaintyIndividualism versus collectivism - this dimension focuses on the relationship between the individual and his/her fellows within a cultureMasculinity versus femininity - this dimension looks at the relationship between gender and work rolesOf considerable importance for an international business with operations in different countries is how a society’s culture affects the values found in the workplace. Management process and practices may need to vary according to culturally determined work related values. For example, if the cultures of the United States and France result in different work-related values, an international business with operations in both countries should vary its management process and practices to account for these differences. Probably the most famous study of how culture relates to values in the workplace was undertaken by Geert Hofstede.44 As part of his job as a psychologist working for IBM, Hofstede collected data on employee attitudes and values for more than 100,000 individuals from 1967 to These data enabled him to compare dimensions of culture across 40 countries. Hofstede isolated four dimensions that he claimed summarized different cultures—power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism, and masculinity versus femininity.
21 Work-Related Values for 20 Selected Countries Table 3.1 – Work-Related Values for 20 Selected Countries, p. 109
22 Problems with Hofstede Assumes one-to-one relationship between culture and the nation stateResearch may have been culturally boundSurvey was of IBM employees, conducted by Europeans and AmericansSurvey respondents were from a single industry (computer) and a single company (IBM)
23 Other scholars have proposed many other dimensions of culture, but none have been shown more significant than the first three Hofstede developed
25 Cultural Change Culture evolves over time Since 1960s American values toward the role of women have changedJapan moved toward greater individualism in the workplaceGlobalization will continue to impact cultures around the world
26 Managerial Implications Cross-cultural literacyYou need to understand differences between culturesCulture and competitive advantageSome cultures make business easier than othersCulture and business ethicsAs we’ll see, cultural differences create big ethical issues
28 Looking Ahead to Chapter 4 Ethics in International BusinessEthical Issues in International BusinessEthical DilemmasThe Roots of Unethical BehaviorPhilosophical Approaches to EthicsEthical Decision Making