# CGC1D-Physical Connections. Weather vs. Climate Weather  Generally defined as the condition of the atmosphere over a short period of time  Usually 1.

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CGC1D-Physical Connections

Weather vs. Climate Weather  Generally defined as the condition of the atmosphere over a short period of time  Usually 1 day Climate  Condition of the atmosphere considered over a long period of time

Factors Affecting Weather & Climate 6 major factors that affect weather and climate. They can be on two different scales: Global Local

The 6 Factors 1. Latitude 2. Ocean currents 3. Winds and air masses 4. Elevation (altitude) 5. Relief (presence of physical features) 6. Nearness to large bodies of water

Defining the 6 Factors  Class will be divided into 6 groups  Each group will be assigned 1 weather/climate factor  Task:  create an overhead presentation on how your group’s factors affects weather/climate  Things to include:  Is your factor global or local (both)?  Where in Canada does this factor play a role? (particular landform region? Province? Etc.)  Are there different effects in different seasons?  Draw a diagram to help explain the concept  Textbook pp. 145-153  Timeline: 25 minutes

Latitude  As latitude increases (north and south of the equator) the temperature decreases  Has to do with solar radiation and the angle of incidence  angle the suns rays hit the surface of the earth

Elevation (Altitude)  The higher the elevation, the cooler the temperature  Air expands as it rises from the earth’s surface.  The air expands because the pressure on the outside of the air mass is less than that of the rising air mass.  As the air expands there is more space for molecules to move around in so their energy is transferred, resulting in cooling of the air mass. Air cools at approximately 1degC/100m

Ocean Currents  If ocean currents are warm, they will keep both winter and summer conditions on the land warmer than expected (i.e. the Gulf Stream).  Cold currents such as the Labrador Current have the opposite effect.

Winds and Air Masses  Winds can move cool air to moderate a hot area, or moist air to bring rain to a dry area.  Basic principle – they move dense, heavy air from high pressure areas towards areas of low pressure where the air is less dense, lighter and rising.  Air masses take on the characteristics of the surface they are sitting over (i.e. an air mass over and ocean in the tropics will be warm and moist)

Relief  Physical features have a considerable influence on weather and climate  Mountains can act as a barrier where the windward side would get a lot of rain and the leeward side would receive little rain  Flat plains enable cold air, dry air from the north to reach far into North America

Bodies of Water  Oceans and Great Lakes  Act in the opposite was of air masses  Water heats and cools much slower than land  Lakes tend to be cool when the land is warm and vise versa  Moderating effect

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