1 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Introduction One of the most important, but difficult aspects of project management is the defining of the scope of a project.Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of projects, and the processes used to create them.Project stakeholders must come into agreement on what the products of a project are to be and, to some extent, how they should be produced.
2 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Introduction Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is, or is not in a project. The main processes include:1. Initiation2. Scope Planning3. Scope Definition4. Scope Verification5. Scope Change Control
3 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Project Initiation Initiation involves committing the organisation to begin a project, or continue to the next phase of a project.A key output of the initiation processes is the project charter, a document that formally defines the projects existence, and provides a broad overview of the project.
4 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Project Initiation The first step in initiating projects is to look at the big picture or strategic plan of the organisation.Strategic planning involves:Determining long-term objectives.Analysing strengths and weaknesses.Studying opportunities and threats.Predicting future trends and projecting the need for new products and services.SWOT analysis is a popular tool used in strategic planning.
5 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Identifying Potential Projects Information Technology Planning StagesTie information technology strategy to mission & vision of organisation.Identify key business areas.InformationTechnologyStrategy PlanningDocument key business processes that could benefit from information technology.Business Area AnalysisDefine potential projects. Define project scope, benefits & constraints.Project PlanningSelect information technology projects. Assign resources.Resource Allocation
6 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Selecting Projects The selection of projects is one of judgement and decision-making, and is a critical part of project management. There are many methods to assist the selection process, four common techniques are:1. Focusing on the broad organisational needs, especially in terms of need, funding & will to succeed.2. Categorising information technology projects on the basis of problem response, opportunity, or directive.3. Performing financial analysis, including NPV (net present value), ROI, and payback analysis.4. Using a weighted scoring model based upon selection criteria.Organisations generally use a combination of these approaches, each method having both strengths and weaknesses.
7 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Project Charter A project charter is a document that formally recognises the existence of a project, and provides direction on the projects objectives and management. Key parts of a project charter include:Project Title and date of authorisation.Project Manager’s name and contact details.Brief scope statement for project.Summary of planned approach to manage projectRoles and responsibilities matrix.Sign-off for key project stakeholder signatures.Comments section to allow stakeholders to make important comments related to the project.
8 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Scope Planning This involves the development of documents to provide the basis for future project decisions, including the criteria for determining if a project or phase has been successfully completed.A major outcome is the creation of a scope statement and a scope management plan.
9 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Scope Planning A scope statement is the document that develops and confirms the common understanding of project scope. It should incorporate:The project justification.A brief description of the project’s products or services.A summary of project deliverables.The scope management plan., which describes the quantifiable criteria that must be met for project success - cost, schedule, and quality.
10 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Scope Definition This is the process of subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.The major outcome of scope definition is the creation - by the project team - of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).
11 HIT241 - Project Scope Management WBS - Work Breakdown Structure A WBS is an outcome-oriented analysis of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope for the project.This provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs and changes. Therefore, the WBS identifies what work will be undertaken by a project.A WBS is usually organised around project products or project phases (examples in text - Fig 4-6a & b)
12 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Scope Verification This is the formal acceptance of project scope.Key project stakeholders - project customers, sponsors etc - formally accept the plan for project deliverables.The plan for project deliverables is the clear documentation of the project’s products, and procedures for evaluating if they were completed correctly and satisfactorily.
13 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Scope Change Control During the project life cycle, action must be taken to control project scope. The main deliverables are:1. Scope changes2. Corrective action3. Lessons learnt.