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Mental and Emotional Problems

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1 Mental and Emotional Problems
Chapter 9 Mental and Emotional Problems

2 Lesson 1 Mental Disorders

3 Mental Disorders Mental Disorder – an illness of the mind that can affect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of a person, preventing him or her from leading a happy, healthful and productive life Of the 20% of children and adolescents who suffer from mental health problems, only one-third receive the help they need Stigma – a negative label or mark of shame There are misconceptions and stereotypes which lead people to be embarrassed Many mental and emotional disturbances involve chemical imbalances in the brain chemistry

4 Types of Mental Disorders
Organic Disorder: caused by a physical illness or an injury that affects the brain May results from brain tumors, infections, chemical imbalances, exposure to drugs and toxins, or injuries resulting in brain damage Functional Disorder: a psychological cause and does not involve brain damage May result from heredity, stress, emotional conflict, fear, ineffective coping skills, or other conditions

5 Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorder: a condition in which real or imagined fears are difficult to control Phobia: a strong and irrational fear of something specific, example – heights Obsessive-compulsive disorder: the person is trapped in a pattern of repeated thoughts or behaviors. Obsessive: persistent, recurrent, and unwanted thoughts that prevent people from attending normal daily activities. Compulsive: repeated, irresistible behaviors

6 Anxiety Disorders, cont.
Panic Disorder: has sudden, unexplained feelings of terror. “Panic Attacks” – accompanied by symptoms such as trembling, a pounding heart, shortness of breath or dizziness. A condition in which fear and anxiety get it the way of a person’s ability to function and enjoy life Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: a condition that may develop after exposure to a terrifying event that threatened or caused physical harm

7 Mood Disorders Mood Disorder: an illness, often with an organic cause, that involves mood extremes that interfere with everyday living. The emotional swings of mood disorders are extreme in both intensity and duration. Clinical Depression: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or despair that last for more than a few weeks and interfere with daily interests and activities. Affect a person’s ability to concentrate, sleep, perform at school, and handle everyday decisions and challenges. Can be biologically based or caused by life events Bipolar Disorder: aka, manic-depressive disorder, marked by extreme mood changes, energy levels, and behavior. Figure 9.1

8 Eating Disorders Anorexia Bulimia
Psychological pressures, possible genetic factors, and an obsession with body image and thinness can lead to an eating disorder Eating disorders are real, treatable medical illnesses A person with an eating disorder can experience a wide range of physical health complications, including serious heart conditions and kidney failure which may lead to death

9 Conduct Disorders Conduct Disorder: a pattern of behavior in which the rights of others or basic social rules are violated Children and adolescents who act out their impulses toward others in a destructive way may have this disorder Lie, theft, aggression, violence, truancy, arson, and vandalism They may project an image of toughness, with this disorder however they have low self-esteem

10 Schizophrenia A severe mental disorder in which a person loses contact with reality Symptoms include: Delusions, hallucinations, and thought disorders People who suffer from schizophrenia have difficulty understanding the difference between real and imaginary events Misconception is that they are violent and have multiple or split personalities, however they are not a threat to others

11 Personality Disorders
Personality refers to an individual’s unique traits and behavior patterns People with healthy personalities can cope with day-to-day challenges of life Antisocial personality disorder: tend to be irritable, aggressive, impulsive, and violent Borderline personality behavior: experience a series of troubled behaviors, tend to engage in high risk activities, poor self-esteem, lash out violently at the people they need most Passive-Aggressive personality disorder: uncooperative, resent being told what to do, but rely on others’ for direction, angry over issues of control, show their anger, but only indirectly

12 Lesson 2 Suicide Prevention

13 Suicide Alienation Suicide
Feeling isolated and separated from everyone else When such painful feelings become unbearable, some people may try drastic, self-destruction measures to escape their pain Suicide The most dramatic of all measures Is the act of intentionally taking one’s own life

14 Suicide Risk Factors Most suicidal thoughts, behaviors, and actions are expressions of extreme distress, not bids for attention More than 90 percent of people who commit suicide are suffering from depression or another mental disorder or are abusing alcohol or drugs Other suicidal risk factors include a history of physical or sexual abuse, history of previous suicide attempts or a family history of emotional disorders or suicide

15 Teen Suicide: Recognizing the Warning Signs
Verbal Signs Direct statements: “I want to die” “I don’t want to live anymore” “I wish I were dead” Indirect statements: “I won’t have to put up with this much longer” “I just want to go to sleep and never wake up” “They’ll be sorry when I am gone” Writing poems, song lyrics, or diary entries that deal with death Suicide threats or insinuations that are either direct or indirect Nonverbal or Behavioral Signs An unusual obsession with death Withdrawal from friends Dramatic changes in personality, hygiene, or appearance Impulsive, irrational, or bizarre behavior An overwhelming sense of guilt, shame, or rejection, negative self-evaluation Significant deterioration in schoolwork, or recreational performance Preoccupation with giving away personal belongings Substance abuse Frequent complaints about physical symptoms Persistent boredom and indifference Violent actions, rebellious behavior or running away Intolerance for praise or rewards

16 Preventing Suicide Your ability to be able to recognize the signs from figure 9.2 in yourself or others can mean the difference between life and death Never bargain with someone who is thinking about suicide Whether someone is talking serious, casual or even humorous, you must take it seriously Untreated depression is the leading cause of suicide People suffering from mental health problems need to seek help

17 Helping Others Suicidal people often believe that their death will not matter to anyone. Therefore it is critical to show concern and empathy for someone who is talking about suicide. Initiate a meaningful conversation Show support and ask questions Try to persuade the person to seek help

18 Multiple Suicides Cluster Suicides: a series of suicides occurring within a short period of time and involving several people in the same school or community In the US cluster suicides mainly occur among teens and young adults Some result from pacts or agreements between two or more people Others result when individuals commit suicide in response to the suicide of a friend or a suicide that has been broadcasted in the media Prevention: evaluation and counseling for friends and relatives of suicide victims

19 Lesson 3 Getting Help

20 Knowing When to Get Help
You feel trapped with no way out, or you worry all the time Your feelings affect your sleep, eating habits, school work, job performance, or relationships Your family or friends express concern about your behavior You are becoming involved with alcohol or other drugs You are becoming increasingly aggressive, violent, or reckless

21 Signs that Professional Help is Needed
Some symptoms that are severe enough to require intervention by a mental health professional include: Prolonged sadness for no specific reason Frequent outbursts of anger Overwhelming fear Anxiety Anger at the world Unexplainable change in sleeping or eating habits Social withdrawal

22 Seeking Help Most people tend to wait too long before seeking help
Figure 9.3 is a list of mental professionals Asking for help from a professional does not mean that a person is weak People cannot get better on their own when suffering from a mental disorder Most people will be surprised and happy t find that unloading problems is a great relief

23 Therapy Methods Psychotherapy: an ongoing dialogue between a patient and a mental health professional Behavior therapy: a treatment process that focuses on changing unwanted behaviors through rewards and reinforcements Cognitive therapy: a treatment method designed to identify and correct distorted thinking patterns that can lead to feelings and behaviors that may be troublesome, self-defeating, or self-destructive Group therapy: involves treating a group of people who have similar problems and who meet regularly with a trained counselor Biomedical therapy: is the use of certain medications to treat or reduce the symptoms of a mental disorder

24 Understanding Death and Grief
Lesson 4 Understanding Death and Grief

25 Expressions of Grief Different kinds of loss that can cause pain
Coping: dealing successfully with difficult changes in your life Grief Response: an individual’s total response to a major loss The way a person responds to loss is unique to the situation and to the individual

26 The Grieving Process It occurs during the grief response
The purpose is to reach closure or acceptance of loss There is no correct way of experiencing loss, but the stages of grief reflect a variety of reactions that may occur as people work through the process

27 Reactions - The Grieving Process
Denial or Numbness Emotional Releases Anger Bargaining Depression Remorse Acceptance Hope

28 Coping with Death To help cope with death, allow some time to reflect on who you were before the loss and who you will be after the grieving Remember the wonderful things and the good times you shared Seek support from others Writing a letter to say good-bye Mourning: the act of showing sorrow or grief

29 Coping with Disasters and Crises
Traumatic or sudden events can leave people feeling a range of emotions Using effective coping mechanisms can ease the process of recovery Spend time with other people and discuss your feelings Get back to daily routines as quickly as possible Eat nutritious foods, exercise and get enough rest and sleep Do something positive to help your community through the event

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