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CS 106 Introduction to Computer Science I 11 / 09 / 2007 Instructor: Michael Eckmann

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Michael Eckmann - Skidmore College - CS 106 - Fall 2007 Today’s Topics Comments and/or Questions? DecimalFormat class ternary conditional operator recursion

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DecimalFormat class Let's look online at the Java API for this class (and others) Allows us to make output nicer by rounding floats and doubles etc. for output Specify a pattern when creating an object of DecimalFormat class 0 vs. # – 0 is a required digit position To the left of decimal --- means at least that many To the right of decimal --- means exactly that many places – # to the right of decimal means that a 0 will not display. % at end of pattern causes number to be displayed as a percent E-notation is also possible (scientific notation)

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DecimalFormat class DecimalFormat df = new DecimalFormat(“00.00”); To use it : (assuming we have a double var temperature) – df.format(temperature) /* this will return a String based on the value of temperature and the pattern specified when the df object was constructed */ – Since it returns a String we can place it anywhere a String can be used, like: System.out.println("The temperature is: " + df.format(temperature));

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DecimalFormat class Let's try a few different formats and see what is produced. Note: no truncation of numbers to the LEFT of the decimal point will ever occur with this formatting even if we have: – the format is 00.0# – assume the value to format is 365.2512 – The number will be formatted as 365.25 because the amount of 0's to the LEFT of the decimal in the format means at least that many places.

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Ternary operator (acts like if /else ) –Ternary conditional operator contains three parts separated by a ? and a : Example: int hour = 14, non_mil_hr; non_mil_hr = ((hour == 12 || hour == 0) ? 12 : hour % 12 );

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overloading methods recall that we overloaded the constructor --- what did that mean? we can do the same with any method.

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overloading methods recall that we overloaded the constructor --- what did that mean? we can do the same with any method. –we give a method the same name but different number of parameters and/or types of parameters. Order matters. names of parameters do not. A method's signature must be unique. Signature includes name of method, and types of parameters in order. –e.g. public void meth1(int i, int j) public void meth1(int j) public void meth1(String s, int i, int j) public void meth1(int i, String s, int j) public void meth1(int j, int k) –// this last one not allowed b/c signature is same as first one.

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Factorial method using iteration // non-recursive solution to the factorial problem public int compute_factorial(int num) { int temp_factorial=1; while (num > 0) { temp_factorial = temp_factorial * num; num--; } return temp_factorial; }

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Factorial method using iteration Let's put this in a program and call it.

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Recursion A recursive method is a method that calls itself (directly or indirectly.) Recursion is often used when the problem to be solved can be easily implemented with recursion as opposed to an iterative technique. Another fact is all problems that can be solved recursively can be solved iteratively. Sometimes though the iterative solution might be very long and require lots of code. In that case recursion might be preferred because it is more readable and easier to write.

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Recursion Let’s say we know the solution to some case of a problem. If we want to find a solution to a slightly more complex case of the problem, we might be able to use the solution to the easier problem as part of our solution. For example, if we know the factorial of the number 6, to find the factorial of 7, we can just multiply 7 * the factorial of 6, so 7! = 7 * 6!. Here, the solution we know (6! = 720) is used as part of the solution to 7!, which is 7*720 = 5040.

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Recursion So, more generally, if we know the solution to (n-1)! We can easily find the solution to n! by just multiplying n*(n-1)!. In addition to knowing this though, we need to also know that 1! = 1. This is the simplest factorial. Now, powered with the knowledge that – 1! = 1 and – the fact that given (n-1)!, we can compute n! we have enough information to compute the factorial of any positive integer. Do we all agree?

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Recursion This is a recursive solution to the factorial problem because –we know how to solve the simplest case (1!) and –we know how to solve a more complex case given a solution to a slightly less complex case n! = n*(n-1)!

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Factorial method using recursion public int compute_factorial ( int num ) { if ( num <= 1 ) return 1; else return num * compute_factorial ( num - 1) ; } // this recursive method is based on figure 6.12 // in Deitel and Deitel.

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Factorial method using recursion When the recursive method is called, if the number passed in as an argument is less than or equal to 1, then 1 is returned and the method ends. That is known as the base case. If the number passed in as an argument is greater than 1, then the else portion of the method is executed. This says to return that number times the result of another call to the method with the argument of one less than the original value. The else portion in this method is known as the recursion step.

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Factorial method using recursion Let’s examine what happens when the number 2 is passed in as an argument to compute_factorial. int fact_value; fact_value = compute_factorial( 2 ); The method would check if 2 <= 1 and since that is false, the else portion would execute. The else portion calls compute_factorial(1). This second call to the method invokes another “copy” of the method. This second call checks if 1 <= 1 and this is true so it returns 1.

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Factorial method using recursion This value of 1 gets returned to the most recent call (and hence the second call to the method ends its execution.) This value of 1 gets multiplied by 2. This happens in the else portion of the method. The result, 2, gets returned to the original call of the method (and hence the first call to the method ends its execution.) If compute_factorial was called with the number 3 as an argument, the method would end up being called three times.

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Recursion When the method is recursively called in the else portion, the prior call to the method has not finished executing. It is waiting on the result of this new method call. There will be multiple active copies of the recursive method when the else portion executes. The recursion ends when the base case is finally met. The base case then returns a result to the previous call of the method and a sequence of returns occurs until the original method call gets its returned value.

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Factorial method using recursion Let’s look at a program that will illustrate, through print statements, what happens in what order when a method is called recursively.

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Recursion We may come back to recursion in other problems later in the semester. Understand that the Factorial example, was for instructional purposes only, since it is a very simple example of recursion. For the factorial method, in practice, we would always prefer the non-recursive (iterative) solution. It is more efficient in terms of both time and space. Recursive solutions often take more time to run, because making a method call is slower and requires more memory than doing the same statements without a method call.

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Recursion Direct vs. indirect recursion – When a method calls itself, it is direct recursion – When method1 calls method2 and method2 calls method1, it is indirect. – There can be more than just two methods involved in the indirection.

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