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Motivation II Need Theories

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation II Need Theories"— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation II Need Theories
Use the concepts of individual needs to explain why people have different needs at different times. What motivates people

2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Actualization The need to develop one’s true potential and skills (creative, autonomous tasks) Growth Needs Self-Esteem The need for feelings of adequacy, competence, and confidence (awards, prestigious titles, promotions) Belongingness The need for social interaction, affection, friendship (opportunities to interact, supportive supervision) Deficiency Needs Safety The need for security, freedom from anxiety, order (job security, comfortable work environment, adequate pay) Physiological The needs for survival, such as, food, water, shelter (minimum pay and existence level support)

3 Aldefer’s ERG Theory Existence Needs – needs satisfied by material substances Relatedness Needs – the need for meaningful social relationships Growth Needs – need for developing one’s potential

4 Relationship between Maslow and Alderfer Need Theories
Higher order needs Intrinsic motivation Self-Actualization Growth Self-Esteem Relatedness Belongingness Safety Existence Physiological Basic needs Extrinsic motivation

5 McClelland’s Need Theories
Need for Achievement (N Ach) – desire to perform challenging tasks Need for Affiliation (N Aff) – desire to establish and maintain friendly interpersonal relationships Need for Power (N Pow) – desire to have significant impact over others

6 Describes how need deficiencies are translated into behaviours
Motivation II Process Theories Describes how need deficiencies are translated into behaviours

7 Equity Theory Comparison of inputs and outcomes My Outcomes My Inputs
Comparison Outcomes Comparison Inputs =

8 Responses to Inequity Distort one’s own inputs/outcomes
Distort the comparison person’s inputs/outcomes Choose another comparison person Alter inputs or outcomes Leave the exchange relationship

9 Issues of Equity Theory
The comparison other??? Over-reward versus under-reward It is all perception

10 Expectancy Theory Force = E x Σ(I x V)
Valence (value) of Outcome 2 (V2) Valence (value) of Outcome 1 (V1) (E > P) (P > O) Effort Performance Reward Outcome Expectancy (E) Instrumentality (I) (probability of Effort leading to Performance) (probability of Performance leading to Reward Outcome) Force = E x Σ(I x V) = expectancy x Σ instrumentalities x 2nd-level valences = expectancy x valence of 1st-level outcome

11 Do theories translate across cultures?
Reinforcement theory? Goal setting theory? Need theories? Maslow’s need hierarchy Alderfer’s ERG McClelland’s theory of needs Equity theory? Expectancy theory?

12 Moberg and motivation: Identify the theory or concept from our discussions. To create high motivation….. Employees must have confidence in their capabilities to perform the job There should be no organizational impediments to high performance People must believe that high performance will lead to rewards that are desirable to them You must be clear and specific about the performance you desire; decide with the employee Be fair - reward how and when you say; make sure that the reward system is clear to all Offer rewards that are favoured by the employee

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