Ethanol Anthony Mirabile, Katelyn Snyder, John St. Fleur
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Ethanol Anthony Mirabile, Katelyn Snyder, John St. Fleur http://www.agri-energysolutions.com/Images/ethanol%20plant%20copy.jpg
Introduction to Ethanol Ethanol in the Future: Cellulosic vs. Grain Based Impacts the Law has on Ethanol Development of Ethanol
Ethanol Cellulosic Ethanol – Chemical Reaction using Acids – Enzymatic Reaction Corn-Based Ethanol Ethanol in the Future http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ethanol_plant.jpg
Chemical Hydrolysis Attacking Cellulose with Acid Mixing Acids and Sugars Balance between acids, temperature, and heat
Enzymatic Reaction Breaking Cellulose Chains Conditions Enzymes are used By Products
Corn-Based Ethanol % of Ethanol in most Gas Can be mass produced Significance for future
Geographical Impact on the Development of Ethanol Large-scale “energy farming,” necessary to produce agricultural alcohol, requires substantial amounts of cultivated land. Tropical regions with abundant water and land resources are perfect for ethanol production from sugarcane. – However, sugarcane plantations are not sustainable in the long-run due to depleting the soil of nutrients and carbon matter. The U.S. is fit for corn and cellulosic ethanol; more energy balanced. http://pharm1.pharmazie.uni-greifswald.de/systematik/7_bilder/yamasaki/Sugarcane.jpg http://soilcrop.tamu.edu/photogallery/cornsorghum+/images/corn%20ears.jpg
CropAnnual yield (Liters/ hectare ) Annual yield (US gal/acre) Greenhouse- gas savings (% vs. petrol) Comments Miscanthus730078037 - 73Low-input perennial grass. Ethanol production depends on development of cellulosic technology. Switchgrass3100 - 7600 330 - 81037 - 73Low-input perennial grass. Ethanol production depends on development of cellulosic technology. Breeding efforts underway to increase yields. Higher biomass production possible with mixed species of perennial grasses. Poplar3700 - 6000 400 - 64051 - 100Fast-growing tree. Ethanol production depends on development of cellulosic technology. Completion of genomic sequencing project will aid breeding efforts to increase yields. Sugar cane5300 - 6500 570 - 70087 - 96Long-season annual grass. Used as feedstock for most bioethanol produced in Brazil. Newer processing plants burn residues not used for ethanol to generate electricity. Only grows in tropical and subtropical climates. Sweet sorghum 2500 - 7000 270 - 750No dataLow-input annual grass. Ethanol production possible using existing technology. Grows in tropical and temperate climates, but highest ethanol yield estimates assume multiple crops per year (only possible in tropical climates). Does not store well. Corn3100 - 3900 330 - 42010 - 20High-input annual grass. Used as feedstock for most bioethanol produced in USA. Only kernels can be processed using available technology; development of commercial cellulosic technology would allow stover to be used and increase ethanol yield by 1,100 - 2,000 litres/ha. Source (except sorghum): Nature 444 (December 7, 2006): 670-654.December 72006
Ethanol Plants In the U.S. http://www.card.iastate.edu/research/bio/tools/maps/ethanol_plants.jpg Existing plants can be modified and enhanced. Production can take place in minimally developed areas.
Laws/Regulations/Policies Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (CAA) – The Act mandates the use of cleaner burning fuels in the smoggiest U.S. cities. – Created new market opportunities for ethanol. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – Developed energy requirements to distribute and disperse ethanol.
Technical Impediments Current technologies are not advanced enough to get efficiency energy out of the corn. Better technologies are needed to take advantage of cellulose energy potential. – In specific, better enzymes are needed to increase the efficiency of cellulosic breakdown.
Can the Impediments Be Overcome? Yes! With increased government funding, time, and research. – There is a big race going on to complete these advancements.
Environmental Problems Deforestation Large amounts of land needed Air pollutants (carbon dioxide in particular) are released into the atmosphere Soil Erosion and Nutrient run-off http://www.energyportal.eu/images/stories/news/1546_deforestation.jpg
Ethanol In The Future E 85 Ethanol based Aviation Fuel Ethanol Diesel Development of Fuel Cells http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/biomass.htm http://www.ncga.com/ethanol/main/energy.htm