CS 106 Introduction to Computer Science I 11 / 26 / 2007 Instructor: Michael Eckmann.
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CS 106 Introduction to Computer Science I 11 / 26 / 2007 Instructor: Michael Eckmann
Michael Eckmann - Skidmore College - CS 106 - Fall 2007 Today’s Topics Comments and/or Questions? Last lab's PokerGame class Inheritance revisited Object super class hierarchies overriding methods
Programming assignments Let's use tomorrow's lab as a time for me to meet with each of you individually regarding your program 1. I'll have a lab for you to work on, and one at a time each of you will meet with me for about 10 minutes each in my office where I will discuss your program 1. Also, you can have an extra day for program 2 which is now due by Wednesday 11:59pm.
Let's solve last lab's Problem 2 By way of review, let's start by writing PokerGame and then write all that is required by PokerHand.
Inheritance If class A inherits from class B, then class A is a subclass of B and class B is a superclass of A. We also talk of class A as being class B's child and class B being class A's parent. We can draw the inheritance relationships hierarchy by having superclass(es) at the top and subclass(es) lower, using lines to connect where there's an inheritance relationship.
Inheritance Class A may inherit from class B which can in turn, inherit from class C. (draw on the board.) However, this is not considered multiple inheritance. Multiple inheritance is an object-oriented concept that allows a subclass to inherit from more than one class --- this is NOT allowed in Java. e.g. Class D cannot inherit from both class E and F directly. (draw on the board.)
Inheritance A subclass inherits all the instance variables in its superclass and has access to (can call) any public methods. Even if there is private instance data in a superclass, the subclass inherits that data but can't refer to the variables. e.g. a SavingsAccount will inherit accountNumber from Account, so an object of type SavingsAccount will have an accountNumber.
Object is the superclass of all All classes inherit from Java's Object class. All classes that do not use the extends keyword directly inherit from Java's Object class. What does that mean for us? Let's visit the Java API for the Object class. – equals() – toString()
super is a reference to the parent class super(); // is a call to the parent's default (no parameter) constructor A call to a parent constructor should be the first thing done in any constructor of a child. If you don't explicitly call it, Java will automatically call the parent's default constructor if it exists.
Hierarchy of the account classes SavingsAccount and CheckingAccount each inherit from Account What about AccountTester? How about the Object class?
Overriding methods A subclass can override a superclass's method by providing a definition for a method that exists in the superclass with the same name and number and type of parameters. Let's add a method to Account and override it in SavingsAccount, but not in CheckingAccount. Then let's call the method with an object of SavingsAccount. And let's call the method with an object of CheckingAccount.
Overriding methods public String toString() What do you think about the toString() method? Can that be overridden by Account? Can it be overridden by a subclass of Account, like SavingsAccount?
equals method In class Object, the header for the equals method is this: public boolean equals(Object obj) If we want to override this method, we must make sure our equals method has the SAME signature. Does anyone recall what a signature contains?
Good design principle It should be apparent that in a case like the one we're doing now, Bank Accounts, we don't ever want the data to be allowed to be invalid. Care must be taken to require that a class's variables cannot have invalid data at any time. e.g. We wouldn't want to allow ATM_Withdrawal_Per_Day_Limit to ever be negative. It doesn't make sense. Also, Account #'s typically have a valid range of possibilities. We certainly wouldn't want account_number to be public and therefore able to be changed to an invalid value. We make the appropriate instance variables private for just that reason. And then only allow them to be changed in a controlled way via methods with some testing in them. We'll put some testing in the code to handle this.
Protected vs. Private vs. Public subclasses have access to public and protected members of their superclass a class has access to all of its own members (whether they are private, protected or public) objects of a class have access only to the public members of the class (and the public members of the parent class(es)). Classes within the same package though are allowed to always access protected members --- but I don't recommend this. What does this mean for our Account program? What about inside the CheckingAccount class, what members of Account can we refer to? What about an object of type CheckingAccount --- does it have access to any of the members in Account?
Overloaded methods Overloaded methods are those that have the same name but different numbers or types of parameters. It has nothing to do with the super / subclass (parent / child) relationships that we've been talking about. Does anyone remember when we used Overloaded methods?
Account Program Let's continue to implement Account, CheckingAccount, SavingsAccount – toString() – equals(Object o) – Add set methods, get methods Deposit, withdraw methods (instead of setBalance) – Create objects
Abstract classes – Can never be instantiated – Can contain both abstract methods and actual (non-abstract) methods – Can contain instance variables as well as constants If a class contains any abstract methods then it MUST BE an abstract class But an abstract class is not required to have abstract methods Abstract classes are different from interfaces which we will see next.
More on overriding methods Suppose we have a class Pet, Dog, and Cat. We provide a speak() method in Pet but with no body. Then, any class that inherits from Pet, must implement this method. Further, let's assume we have a class TalkingDog which doesn't bark when he speaks, instead he speaks English. To implement this stuff...
Class Pet, Dog and Cat Let's suppose all Pets have names, breeds and make sounds, and know how to sleep. Let's also suppose that different Dogs have different skills, but different Cats do not. Data to be stored in Pet is: – Name – Type (cat, dog, etc.) – Breed Additional data to be stored in Dog is: – Skill No additional data is stored in Cat. Let's set up the classes with these data and the relationships among the classes.
More on overriding methods So we have classes Pet (abstract), Dog, and Cat. We can provide a speak() method in Pet with no body (and we make it abstract). Then, any class that inherits from Pet, must implement this method. We can provide an actual method sleeps() in Pet that is not abstract. And the class TalkingDog which doesn't bark when he speaks, instead he speaks English. So, Dog and Cat inherit from Pet. TalkingDog inherits from Dog. Let's implement this stuff (instantiate objects of Dog, Cat, and TalkingDog) Note: because Pet contains an abstract method, the class is not instantiable --- the class itself must be declared as abstract.