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© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.3-1 The External Environment: Opportunities, Threats, Industry Competition and Competitor Analysis Chapter Three
© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.3-2 General Environment General Environment General Environment Sociocultural Global Technological Political/Legal Demographic Economic The External Environment IndustryEnvironment Threat of new entrants Power of suppliers Power of buyers Product substitutes Intensity of rivalry CompetitorEnvironment
© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.3-3 Product Differentiation* Capital Requirements* Switching Costs* Access to Distribution Channels* Cost Disadvantages Independent of Scale* Government Policy* Expected Retaliation* Economies of Scale* Barriers to Entry Threat of New Entrants *
© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.3-4 * Supplier industry is dominated by a few firms. * Buyer is not an important customer to supplier. * Suppliers’ product is an important input to buyers’ product. * Suppliers’ products are differentiated. Suppliers are likely to be powerful if:* Suppliers’ products have high switching costs. * Supplier poses credible threat of forward integration. Suppliers exert power in the industry by: * * Threatening to raise prices or to reduce quality Powerful suppliers can squeeze industry profitability if firms are unable to recover cost increases Suppliers’ products have few substitutes.* Bargaining Power of Suppliers *
© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.3-5 * * Playing firms off of each other Buyers compete with supplying industry by: * * Bargaining down prices * * Forcing higher quality Buyer groups are likely to be powerful if:* Buyers are concentrated or purchases are large relative to seller’s sales * Purchase accounts for a significant fraction of supplier’s sales * Products are undifferentiated * Buyers face few switching costs * Buyers’ industry earns low profits * Buyer presents a credible threat of backward integration * Product unimportant to quality * Buyer has full information Bargaining Power of Buyers
© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.3-6 Products with similar function limit the prices firms can charge * Products with improving price / performance tradeoffs relative to present industry products Keys to evaluating substitute products: For Example: Electronic security systems in place of security guards Fax machines or e-mailed attachments in place of overnight mail delivery Threat of Substitute Products
© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.3-7 Threat of New Entrants Threat of Substitute Products Threat of New Entrants Bargaining Power of Buyers Bargaining Power of Suppliers Porter’s 5 Forces Model of Competition Rivalry Among Competing Firms in Industry *
© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.3-8 Occurs when a firm is pressured or sees an opportunity * Price competition often leaves entire industry worse off Intense rivalry often plays out in the following ways Jockeying for strategic position * Using price competition* Staging advertising battles* Increasing consumer warranties or service* Making new product introductions* Advertising battles may increase total industry demand, but may be costly to smaller competitors* Rivalry Among Existing Competitors
© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.3-9 Strategic Groups A set of firms emphasizing similar strategic dimensions to use a similar strategy
© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.3-10 Competitor Environment Competitor intelligence is the ethical gathering of needed information and data about competitors’ objectives, strategies, assumptions, and capabilities. What drives the competitor as shown by its future objectives, What the competitor is doing and can do as revealed by itsWhat the competitor is doing and can do as revealed by its current strategy, What the competitor believes about itself and the industry, as shown by its assumptions, What the the competitor may be able to do, as shown by itsWhat the the competitor may be able to do, as shown by its capabilities.
Lesson 4 Strategic Marketing.
© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.
Chapter 2 The External Environment:
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