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1 Children on the move: opportunities and risks

2 Some figures 214 million persons worldwide as international migrants 740 million persons migrating within borders a third of migrant flow from developing world are between 12 and 24 years of age Millions under 18 years old

3 Forms of child migration Across borders or internally Family migration or independent child migration Children moving in peers Involuntary and forced migration, incl child trafficking

4 Causes To escape conflict, natural disaster, violence at home/school In search of better opportunities for education and employment To contribute to family incomes or even as part of a family surviving strategy (decreasing household consumption) History and culture where migration is considered as learning experience and part of transition to adulthood

5 Consequences Movement means improved standards of living and prospects for many of these children but for many others means risks, lower standards of living, abuse, exploitation and trafficking

6 Risk factors Age and development of the child Gender Conditions of journey Links with and support by protective actors Access to services Political and social environment in the transit and host societies

7 Example of Morocco  Countries of origin Ivory Cost, DRC, Iraq, Nigeria  Destination EU  Long and risky trajectories  Exposure to various forms of exploitation and often without any support  Girls under 18 arriving pregnant  Raped or sporadic relations on the way, no father aside

8 Undocumented migrant  Getting ‘stuck’  Lacking access to services and opportunities  Lack of regular incomes, prostitution as survival strategy?  Difficult to reach out to Nigerian women, trafficking?  Women afraid to deliver at hospital  Child or mother health complications during delivery  Lack of birth registration of the child

9 Lampedusa 2011 (i) Ongoing flows of migrant 2692 children registered Jan- Sep Approx 5% of migrants arriving every time are children 14-18 years old Nigeria, Sudan, Morocco, Libya

10 Lampedusa 2011 (ii) Common spaces with adult men No privacy and full protection Poor hygienic conditions Incidents of violence Alleged cases of sexual abuse Very limited access to health and psychosocial support

11 Further at destination Xenophobia and discrimination Lack of the initial social network Difficulties to create a new social network and receive thus the required support Worst case scenarios  Detention and deportation practices  Return without a proper risk assessment and best interests determination  Hidden and lacking access often even to basic services  The child could fall victim of exploitation

12 Recommandations

13 Research Need for further research, data and information Disaggregated per age and gender Regular repetition to enable comparison Listening to experiences of children in migration

14 Countries of origin Qualitative education Employment opportunities Systems of protecting children from harm and abuse  Incl community protection practices Addressing gender based violence  Bridging cultural norms and practices with rules and regulations Information on safe migration

15 On the move Protection services along the movement process Empowerment and self protection Encouraging peer support and maintaining the link with protective actors in place of origin

16 In transit/ destination Being able to access protection services without discrimination Information on existing services Need for law enforcement investigation on whether third parties are involved Fighting discrimination and xenophobia against foreigners No situation amounting to detention due to migration status Best interests determination on every measure undertaken, incl decision on return or not

17 For further reading Kids Abroad: ignore them, abuse them or protect them? Quelle protection pur les enfants concernes par la mobilite en Afrique de L’Ouest? Vulnerability to exploitation and trafficking of Bulgarian children and adolescent in Greece? Exploring methods to protect children on the move- Draft

18 TDHIF Campaign A new campaign on protecting children on the move?  Awareness on the protection needs of children on the move by bringing forth their experiences  Seeking a paradigm shift from a security perspective to a child protection one  Ensuring access to services for children in a number of identified routes

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