HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 HRM: Work process design Overview.
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HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 HRM: Work process design Overview
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 General purpose of work process analysis Description of tasks performed by individuals Description of work flows within and across work systems To be used for –Human resource planning and development –Job evaluation and compensation –Job (re)design –Design of (socio-)technical systems
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Different perspectives in work process analysis job-oriented versus worker-oriented –description of tasks to be performed –required behavior, knowledge, skills, abilities expert-based versus person-oriented –description/evaluation by external expert –description/evaluation by person carrying out the task
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Methods for data collection Analysis of documents/archival data –Advantages: non-reactive, "condensed organizational knowledge" Disadvantages: not aligned with purpose of the investigation Written survey –Advantages: objective, applicable for large samples –Disadvantages: no control over the actual data collection, response biases Interview –Advantages: control over data collection, complex issues possible –Disadvantages: resource-intensive, interviewer influences Observation –Advantages: access to implicit knowledge, natural situation –Disadvantages: subjective meaning of the observed unknown, no control over the occurrence of the events under study
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Examples of specific methods for work process analysis "Observation interview" –shadow a worker performing the tasks of interest, mix of observation periods and questions Structured job classification –identify the specific characteristics of a job from a predefined set of tasks/functions/elements Critical incident technique –identify critical elements for good performance based on examples of successful/poor performance
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Example 1: Hierarchical task analysis Job-oriented, expert-based Frequently used in socio-technical system design and for work flow modelling Output: List of tasks and sub-tasks and their required sequence –Example: 1. Warm up furnace 1.1 Prepare plant and services 1.1.1 Ensure plant is ready 1.1.2 Ensure gas-oil available... 1.2 Start air blower... 1.3 Start oil pump...
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Example Supply Chain in Forestry (Günter, 2007)
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Forest ranger Transportation contractor 29: 3PL providers do not provide transportation contractors with long- and medium term information on planned harvesting processes, hence transportation contractors do not have the opportunity for long- and medium term scheduling of resources. 30: Information on delivery volume or quality is missing or underspecified which affords transportation contractors to get more detailed information from forest rangers and reconfirm information. 31: Truck drivers load timber in accordance with orders given to them by the transportation contractor but do not confirm the quality of the timber – it is not always clear whether truck drivers are responsible for assessing quality of timber at all.
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Example 2: Job evaluation Job-/worker-oriented, expert-based Used to develop compensation systems Output: "value" of different jobs based on a predefined set of weighted criteria –Example ("Vereinfachte Funktionsanalyse" VFA): 1) Education and experience (weight 6) 2) Cognitive demans (weight 6) 3) Responsibility (weight 5) 4) Psychological demands and strains (weight 1) 5) Physical demands and strains (weight 1) 6) Strenuous working conditions (weight 1)
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Example 3: "Human-centred" job/work system analysis Job-oriented, expert-based Used for job (re)design based on principles of humane work Output: Assessment of quality of job and redesign requirements –Example KOMPASS (see student project)
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Example 4: Subjective job analysis Job-oriented, person-oriented Used for job redesign and work satisfaction surveys Output: Description/assessment of job by employees themselves –Example Job Diagnostic Survey: Questions on perceived skill variety, task variety, task significance, autonomy, feedback
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Example 5: Results of a subjective job analysis in a redesign project
HRM: Work Process Design – G. Grote ETHZ, Fall08 Need to combine "objective" and "subjective" perspectives Expert for the assessment of a work situation – external observer and/or workers themselves ? Objective conditions and subjective re- interpretation of these conditions are relevant determinants of action Compensation of different kinds of biases (stemming from norms, needs, social context, different uses for data etc.)