Presentation on theme: "Inflation: Its Causes and Costs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Inflation: Its Causes and Costs Chapter 17Inflation: Its Causes and Costs
2 Outline What is inflation? Causes of inflation Arriving at the monetary equilibriumQuantity theory of moneyThe classical dichotomy- Real versus nominalVelocity of moneyThe Fisher effectCosts of inflation
3 Inflation Inflation is the overall increase in price level. Inflation rate can be measured as the percent change in CPI, GDP deflator, or any overall price index.Recall that prices rise when the government prints too much money (chap 1).
4 Causes of Inflation Level of prices and the value of money: P= Price level = # $ required to buy a basket of goods and services1/P= quantity of goods that can be bought with $1 = value of moneyTherefore, price level and value of money are inversely related
5 Monetary Equilibrium Determinants of money supply: The banking system along with the Bank of Canada can influence the supply of moneyMoney supply is determined by the Bank of Canada and is treated as a policy variableDeterminants of money demand:Quantity of money held by public (demand) is determined by interest rate on bondsDemand for money also depends on the average price level in the economy
6 Monetary Equilibrium Determinants of money demand: Higher the price level (lower value of money), more money people choose to hold, and demand for money increasesEquilibriumIn the LR, the overall level of prices adjusts to the level where demand equals supply of moneyAt the point of equilibrium, price level and value of money have adjusted to balance supply and demand for money
7 Quantity Theory of Money The theory states that the quantity of money available determines the price level and that the growth rate in the quantity of money available determines the inflation rate.
8 The Classical dichotomy and Monetary Neutrality Classical dichotomy is the theoretical separation of nominal and real variablesNominal variables are measured in monetary unitsReal variables are measured in physical unitsRelative prices are real variablesMonetary neutrality states that changes in the money supply affect nominal variables and do not affect real variables
9 Velocity and the quantity equation Velocity of money is the rate at which money changes hands or the speed at which the $ travels around the economyMV=PY is the quantity equation and relates the quantity of money and its velocity to the nominal value of outputVelocity of money is relatively stable over time in CanadaTherefore, when Bank of Canada increases money supply rapidly, it results in inflation.
11 Inflation taxHyperinflation is defined as inflation that exceeds 50% per month.Inflation tax is the revenue the government raises by creating money supplyWhen the government prints money in order to fund its expenditure, it increases the price level and thereby reduces the value of money.
12 Fisher EffectMoney neutrality means that an increase in the growth of money supply raises inflation rate but does not affect any real variables.However, increase in money supply does affect (increase) nominal interest rate.Recall real interest rate= nominal interest rate-inflation rate.The one-for-one adjustment between the nominal interest rate to the inflation rate is the Fisher effect.
13 The Costs of Inflation Inflation fallacy Shoeleather costs Menu costs Relative price variability and misallocation of resourcesInflation-induced tax distortionsConfusion and inconvenienceArbitrary redistribution of wealth
14 Inflation does not in itself reduce Inflation fallacyInflation leads to fall in purchasing power of money and hurts consumers.Suppliers on the other hand receive a higher price for the same quantity sold.Factors of production receive higher incomesInflation does not in itself reducereal purchasing powerNeutrality of money
15 Shoeleather costsInflation is like a tax and creates deadweight loss for the society.To reduce the burden of inflation tax, people hold less money in hand and hold in interest bearing savings instead.The resources wasted (time and inconvenience) in reducing money holdings is termed as shoeleather costs.During hyperinflation, local currency’s store of value is vastly reduced.
16 Menu costsMenu costs are incurred when prices change frequently and frequent changing of prices increases the costs of firms.
17 Relative-price variability and the misallocation of resources With no inflation, a firm’s relative prices would be constant over a period of time ( a year).With inflation, the relative prices of a firm will be high in the early months of the year and low in later months.As market economies allocate resources based on relative prices, inflation distorts prices resulting in misallocation of resources by markets.
18 Inflation-induced tax distortions Inflation tends to raise the tax burden on income from savingsTax treatment of capital gains discourages savingsAll of the nominal interest earned on savings is treated as income for purpose of taxation
20 Confusion and Inconvenience Inflation erodes the real value of money as a unit of account.
21 Cost of unexpected inflation: Arbitrary redistribution of wealth Hyperinflation enriches the borrower by diminishing the real value of the debt.Deflation enriches the lender by increasing the real value of the debt.Unexpected inflation prevents the Fisher effect from taking place imposing a risk on the borrower and lender.Inflation indexed bonds are a solution to protect long term savings.