2 ‘vocational’ vs. ‘academic’: VOCATIONAL PATHWAYSThe ongoing dilemma of‘vocational’ vs. ‘academic’:VOCATIONALISM: A quest for greater labour market relevance for education: for better articulation between the content of schooling and the application of acquired skills, attitudes and knowledge in the world of work’ Lauglo and Lillis 1988A quote on the new vocationalism from a masters’ degree some 13/14 years ago, and a module on national training and education systems, NVQs were then the new thing and the argument around vocationalism and academic learning was raging as it is today. This quote from 1988.
3 From Progression from Vocational and Applied Learning to HE in England. Adrian Anderson, Chief Executive, UVAC(Universities Vocational Awards Council)Academic routes on the left (and youth) more vocational/wbl on the right along with APEL
4 Qualifications levels explained in very simple language – excellent resource from Connexions: Which Way Now?How to Choose your Stage 4 Options
5 DIPLOMA Elephant in the room… CERTIFICATE AWARD QCF is new framework for creating and accrediting qualifications in England, Wales and N. Ireland.Major reform of vocational qualification systemSmaller steps of learing- learners build up quals bit by bit- workbased training can be recognised and formally accreditedBy 2010/11 all vocational quals need to be accredited to QCF and it will replace National Quals Framework
6 Stages in the Decision Making Journey Non-academic route learners – choices made at 14 more relevant as their goals may be closerYear 9 – need for myth busting re apprenticeships (i.e. unpaid, only for males etc)Year 11 – November to February before/after work experienceDuring Level 3 course – progression to HE or continue in job (AA)/find a job?Foundation degree – move to do top up? Can I cope with level? Professional status?
7 Post-16 RoutesFrom an LSC report : Understanding Choice and the Empowered Learner, March 2009Quantitative research asked how much young people felt they knew about various options so for example,59% said they knew a lot about employment38% didn’t know much about apprenticeshipsFelt most knowledgable about 6th from and FE
8 L Actual Vocational Progression to HE VOCATIONAL PATHWAYSOptions young people least knowledgeable about: vocational training and apprenticeships (42% claim to ‘know a lot’ about both routes).Percentage of A Level and Vocational Learners in England progressing to HE90% of A level learners progress to higher education41% of BTEC learners4% of Advanced ApprenticesFrom 2006, Adrian Anderson, Chief Executive of UVACL Actual Vocational Progression to HEActual Vocational Progression to HE
9 WORK BASED LEARNING ROUTE Key Features of Apprenticeship:Apprentices earn a wageApprentices gain recognisable transferable qualificationsApprentices gain new knowledge and experience in the work placeApprentices develop key skillsAll areas now have an online prospectus and common post-16 Common Application Process. All qualifications fit into a 9-level national framework.Entry level is at the bottom and Level 8 at the top. Qualifications at the same level require the same degree of skill, knowledge and understanding. They place similar demands on learners although the type of study and subject matter may differ. Courses leading to different qualifications vary in content, learning styles and assessment.Foundation Learning Progression Pathways: for learners over 14 who are working below Level 2. Learning providers use national frameworks to create personalised programmes to respond to individual need. Aim – to provide small stepping stones to achievement.
10 ApprenticeshipsNational Vocational Qualification (NVQ) at either Level 2 (= 5 GCSEs A*-C) or 3 (= 2 A levels)Key skillsTechnical Certificate: i.e.BTEC National Diploma or City and Guilds awardOther qualifications / requirements as required by the occupational sectorProgression to HE possible – no mention
11 VOCATIONAL PATHWAYS THE DIPLOMA Principal LearningGeneric LearningAdditional Specialist LearningEquivalent toMain subjecte.g. engineeringProjectFunctional SkillsWork experienceOptional courses agreed with teacherFoundation DiplomaPractical assessments + 1 examICT/Maths/English Level 1Minimum 10 daysChoose from a range of qualifications including:BTECSGCSEsA levels5 x GCSEs, Grade D-GHigher DiplomaEnglish Level 27 x GCSEs, Grade A*-CAdvanced DiplomaPractical assessments + 2 or 3 examsExtended ProjectEnglish Level 33.5 A levelsFrom 2010, this is available in 14 subjects at three levels. Local provision varies.It’s a composite qualification that suits individuals of all abilities and aspirations.Provides a fully rounded education but doesn’t qualify individual to do a specific job.What’s available locally? Where can they lead? It’s important that learners get good IAG when choosing optional elements (additional and specialist learning) as this may affect future plans.
12 ADVANCED LEVEL DIPLOMA Diploma in EngineeringDiploma in Engineering Advanced Level (Level 3)This is a two year, full-time course based at Truro College. The course covers 9 units:Investigating Engineering Businesses and the Environment.In addition you will complete:Additional and Specialist Learning. For students wishing to progress to study Engineering at university this should include A level Mathematics.An extended project.Work experience.Functional skills in literacy, numeracy and ICT.Assessment:The course is assessed through a mixture of formal written examinations and detailed written portfolio work.
13 Diploma in Engineering: Advanced Level The course includes work experience, visits to engineering works and projects at specialist locationsLinks with employersThe course includes work experience, visits to engineering works and projects at specialist locations.Entry Requirements:5 GCSE subjects grade A*-C including English and Maths.Progression:This course leads to employment or university programmes
14 VOCATIONAL PATHWAYS GCSEs A level maths Routes to university - maths for an engineering degreeA level maths: 1/3 x 2 5 days GCSEs A level mathsSchool higher educationGCSEs DiplomaNational Diploma: 1/8 x 2 2 days a weekNew Diploma: 1/6 of A level at best?FOUNDATION PATHWAYS in Technology at Plymouth – Year 0 of the BEng and BSc courses: for applicants without the specific A-level qualification pre-requisites. (4 GCSEs unit award)This information came from attending one of the seminars the Faculty of Technology have held at Plymouth. Deals with the amount of maths a learner needs to support them into and through a full degree.
15 Professional StatusEngineering Technician: BTEC National Certificate or Diploma. Training and work experienceIncorporated Engineer: Degree of BTEC HNC or HNDChartered Engineer: Honours degree (Fd + top up). Look for BSc or BEng or MEng accredited with Chartered status.
16 I want to be an electrician… VOCATIONAL PATHWAYSI want to be an electrician…Analogy from a mature student I talked to for a case study:The analogy was in answer to my question of how useful and work ready a foundation degree made him feel (he already has an HNC and NVQ Level 4)Imagine you want to be an electrician but you decide to do a foundation degree. Your lecturer is holding a wire and you are expecting to find out how to use this in various settings – however, he says ‘We are going to look today at what runs through this wire – copper! We are going to investigate copper mining, the systems that extract copper, how it is transported and which regions of the world are the main producers…’
17 VOCATIONAL PATHWAYS Traditionally, going to university was about learning, utility and virtue. As the cost ofhigher education is increasing, and fallingmore heavily on the learner, students aregoing to think much more rigorously aboutwhat kind of returns they are going to get…’The Sunday Times magazine, Nice Little Earners 2009