Wireless Network vs. ASIC University of Tehran Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ASIC Course – Spring 2006 Instructor: Dr. S. M. Fakhrai.
Published byModified over 3 years ago
Presentation on theme: "Wireless Network vs. ASIC University of Tehran Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ASIC Course – Spring 2006 Instructor: Dr. S. M. Fakhrai."— Presentation transcript:
Wireless Network vs. ASIC University of Tehran Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ASIC Course – Spring 2006 Instructor: Dr. S. M. Fakhrai Presented by: Mohammad Ali Tootoonchian This is a class presentation. All data are copy righted to respective authors as listed in the references and have been used here for educational purpose only
Outline Wireless Network Overview Wireless Network vs. ASIC Issues Low Power ASIC Design for Sensor Network Wireless Network Implementation vs. Codesign ASIC Application in Wireless Network Conclusion References
Wireless Network Overview WLAN : Wireless Local Area Network Wireless Sensor Network WMAN: Wireless Metropolitan Area Network WPAN: Wireless Personal Area Network WWAN: Wireless Wide Area Network Figure1: Wireless Protocol Area Coverage
Low Power Design in Wireless Sensor Network WiseNET: An Ultralow-Power Wireless Sensor Network Solution  Introduction Network Architecture WiseMAC Protocol Wireless Network Architecture Reducing Power Consumption Hardware and Software Codesign WiseNET Node Architecture
Low Power Design in Wireless Sensor Network Introduction Consists of many energy- autonomous micro- sensors Sensor Node Characteristics Monitors local environment, Locally processing and storing the collected data Not require maintenance. Long Lifetime ranges Figure3: Sensor Node Architecture[5 ]
Network Architecture: WiseMAC Protocol Reducing power consumption requires optimization across all layers This solution consumes about 100 times less power Preamble Sampling
Network Architecture: Wireless Network Architecture The infrastructure mode Mobile nodes communicate through base stations Particularly its relative simplicity. Base stations do not have power restrictions. The ad hoc mode There is no base station infrastructure. Successive hops transport a packet. Higher versatility and potentially lower power consumption. Can be deployed quickly and in remote areas. Hybrid Mode
Network Architecture: Wireless Network Architecture Figure4: Infrastructure Wireless Figure5: Ad hoc Network Wireless
Network Architecture: Reduce Power Consumption Reduce Power Main Techniques nodes remain sleeping until they need to undertake a specific task. An external event also can trigger this wake-up With Proper design, communication will decrease network power consumption significantly Power Consumption Factors Idle listening Overemitting Overhearing Collisions
Hardware Software Codesign and Power Reduction Design the radio and protocol concurrently. Power consumption in receive and transmit mode Wake-up time Bit and frame synchronization time The presence of an receive signal strength indicator Some way to filter incoming packets The time to switch from receive to transmit mode or vice versa Receiver sensitivity and maximum transmit power The capacity to adjust transmit power and receiver sensitivity Power consumption in sleep mode with a running, accurate clock
Hardware Software Codesign Basic Issue Minimize the transmit power Because nodes usually transmit rarely, the transmit energy is not the most important parameter to be optimized. Reducing energy consumption and wakeup time in receive mode. We added robust bit synchronization and packet filtering based on a programmable pattern Developed a complete sensor node SoC
Hardware Software Codesign Figure6: Generic WiseNET SoC building blocks. In addition to the ultralow-power dual-band radio transceiver (TX and RX), the architecture includes a sensor interface with a signal conditioner and two analog-to-digital converters (ANA FE), a digital control unit based on a Cool-RISC microcontroller (μC) with on-chip low- leakage memory, several timebasis and digital interfaces, and a power management block (POW). 
WiseNET Node Architecture long-term autonomy and low average power consumption. Tiny to fit into all kinds of spaces and, given their high number Inexpensive SoC approach to design Highly integrated devices Dedicated integrated circuit.
WiseNET Node Architecture Design Objective Keep the power consumption within the 1-milliwatt range while in receive mode Achieve several years of autonomy by operating from a single 1.5-V AA alkaline battery Use a 0.18-micrometer standard digital CMOS process that has no precision analog components Minimize both the number of external components and the cost.
Figure7: The WiseNET SoC sensor node. Key SoC components include the dual band transceiver (RX/TX), the sensor interface with two ADCs (ANA), the power management block (POW), the control unit (μC) with an 8-bit CoolRISC processor, and the embedded low leakage memory (RAM). 
Wireless Network Implementation vs. Codesign HW/SW Codesigned Implementation of IEEE 802.16 TDMA MAC for the Subscriber Station  Introduction Network Architecture SS Operation SS MAC function component Hardware and Software Codesign Implementation
Wireless Network Implementation vs. Codesign Introduction IEEE 802.16 MAC Subscriber station (SS) Send upstream packets in the uplink duration Scheduling information specified by the Base Station (BS) Time-critical job needs to be implemented in HW No timing constraints can be guaranteed in SW. An important factor to guarantee performance of high-speed protocol is integration between software (SW) and hardware (HW).
Network Architecture: SS Operation The BS assigns the radio channel to each SS According to the scheduling policy of the medium access control (MAC). Request/grant mechanism to coordinate transmissions among multiple SSs.
Network Architecture: SS MAC Component The Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (CS) Provides any transformation or mapping of external network data to the MAC Common Part Sublayer (CPS). The Privacy Sublayer Pertains to authentication, secure key exchange, and encrypting. The MAC CPS responsible of System access, Bandwidth allocation, Connection establishment, Connection maintenance. Receives data form the various CSs, through the MAC SAP, Classified to particular MAC connection (associated with Connection Identifier). The heavy loaded jobs are as follows. Framing: Fragmentation/Packing Automatic repeat request(ARQ): Selective-Repeat is assumed Encryption : DES algorithm is assumed. CRC-32 Uplink Scheduling
Hardware and Software Codesign The important criteria for partitioning SS has to be as fast as it is able to satisfy the timing request Implementation complexity and the memory in the downlink transmission Implementation Methodology: A functional specification, System-level partitioning, Communication synthesis, Virtual prototyping and implementation. The validation was performed using C description The basic idea of codesign is that the behavior of a complete system should be described abstractly in a uniform manner,
Implementation MAC board will be interfaced with laptop computer using PCMCIA interface (VHDL) MAC board contains StrongARM SA-1110 processor operated by Montavista Linux, SW implementation codes are developed as loadable kernel module, Single Xilinx VirtexTM-II FPGA HW implementation codes are written by VHDL.
Implementation Figure8: HW/SW functional partitioning and architecture of MAC board 
ASIC Application in Wireless Network A design and implementation of ASIC for high-quality VoIP terminal over wireless LAN Introduction VoIP Architecture ASIC Design ASIC Implementation
ASIC Application in Wireless Network Introduction The lower quality of VoIP service compared with circuit-based network is an open problem to be solved for the wider applications of all IP networks. For the enhancement of quality of voice for VolP applications, Wideband speech codec technology was the first consideration for better quality of media source itself.
VoIP over Wireless LAN Architecture The features of G.729EV provide. G.729EV is bit-level interoperability with legacy G.729 core codec, Frame size of G.729 is very short as 10ms It gives the easier interoperability with the mobile phone. Its scalability for the capacity of terminals and bandwidth.
VoIP over Wireless LAN Architecture Figure8: Overall architecture of ASIC 
ASIC Design ASIC Characteristics High-performance RISC core with DSP features not the use of additional DSP core as shown 16-channel DMA Controller for transferring data at high speed, Interrupter Controller, AHB I/O decoder, CLCD Controller, Reset and Clock Controller, Elastic Buffer, APB (Advanced Peripheral Bus), Timers Free Running Periodic Timer
WMAC Implementation WMAC QoS The excessive packet delay and loss between AP and terminal. IEEE8O2.1lie standard provides 1 solution by using the differentiated queue management with priority based on class of service. WMAC Design PLCP interface, Interrupt control and Management part Processes management data of WMAC and WPHY. Data transmission part Transmit controller, Transmit FIFO, Transmit data pump, Data multiplexer, Data reception part includes Receive controller, Receive FIFO, Receive data pump WMAC Codesign
ASIC TermsSpecifications Core ProcessorARM926EJ-S@200MHz Bus ClockUpto 100MHz Internal Memories32k TCM, 64K SRAM Network interfaceIEEE 802.11 a/b/g Audio SamplingMax 48KHz External Memory Interface64 MB SRAM/SDRAM/FLASH Graphic InterfaceSTN/TFT LCD Controller Process / Package0.18 um CMOS / 316 pin BGA Dimension27 x 27 mm
Conclusion Nowadays Wireless Protocol play a main role in communication world industry. Based on protocol specification, developed application and specific constraint design attributes change significantly Power Time Area Bandwidth Signal Integrity Codesign goals and objective should be satisfy protocol specification, application request and user constraints. ASIC Design and implementation
References Papers :”WiseNET: an ultralow-power wireless sensor network solution”; Enz, C.C.; El-Hoiydi, A.; Decotignie, J.-D.; Peiris, V.;Computer Volume 37, Issue 8, Aug. 2004 :”HW/SW codesigned implementation of IEEE 802.16 TDMA MAC for the subscriber station”; Nak Woon Sung; Computer and Information Science, 2005. Fourth Annual ACIS International Conference on 2005 :”A design and implementation of ASIC for high-quality VoIP terminal over wireless LAN”;Do Young Kim; Jong Won Park;Advanced Communication Technology, 2006. ICACT 2006. The 8th International Conference Volume 3, 20-22 Feb. 2006 WebSites: :http://www.eurecom.fr/~nikaeinn/adhocNetworks/Wireless_Technologies. pdf :http://www.isoc.org/pubs/int/cisco-1-1.html :http://www.crc.ca/en/html/crc/home/mediadesk/eye_on_tech/2005/issue2/ devices_that_sense :http://www.merl.com/ projects/sensornet/ :ttp://www.tutorial-reports.com/