Presentation on theme: "Microeconomics ECON 2302 Summer I, 2011"— Presentation transcript:
1 Microeconomics ECON 2302 Summer I, 2011 Marilyn Spencer, Ph.D.Professor of EconomicsChapter 4
2 Announcement The first exam is scheduled for June 13. More information will be provided in the Chapter 1-4 Review PPTs, uploaded with the other class notes.You can view an old 1st exam by going to the Class Notes Web page and clicking on “old exam” and in the upper right hand corner.
3 4 Economic Efficiency, Government Price Setting, and Taxes CHAPTEREconomic Efficiency, Government Price Setting, and TaxesTenants in rent-controlled apartments in New York are very reluctant to see rent control end because rents for those apartments are much lower than rents for apartments that aren’t rent controlled.
4 4 Economic Efficiency, Government Price Setting & Taxes CHAPTEREconomic Efficiency,Government Price Setting & TaxesChapter Outline and Learning Objectives4.1Consumer Surplus and Producer SurplusDistinguish between the concepts of consumer surplus and producer surplus.4.2The Efficiency of Competitive MarketsUnderstand the concept of economic efficiency.4.3Government Intervention in the Market: Price Floors and Price CeilingsExplain the economic effect of government-imposed price floors and price ceilings.4.4The Economic Impact of TaxesAnalyze the economic impact of taxes.
5 Economic Efficiency, Government Price Setting, and Taxes Price ceiling A legally determined maximum price that sellers may charge.Price floor A legally determined minimum price that sellers may receive.
6 Consumer Surplus & Producer Surplus 4.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVEDistinguish between the concepts of consumer surplus and producer surplus.Consumer Surplus & Producer SurplusConsumer SurplusConsumer surplus The difference between the highest price a consumer is willing to pay for a good or service and the price the consumer actually pays.Marginal benefit The additional benefit to a consumer from consuming one more unit of a good or service.
7 Consumer Surplus & Producer Surplus: Consumer Surplus FIGURE 4-1Deriving the Demand Curve for Chai TeaWith 4 consumers in the market for chai tea, the D curve is determined by the highest P each is willing to pay.For prices above $6, no tea is sold because $6 is the highest price any consumer is willing to pay.For prices of $3 and below, every one of the four consumers is willing to buy a cup of tea.
8 Consumer Surplus & Producer Surplus: Consumer Surplus FIGURE 4-2Measuring Consumer SurplusPanel (a) shows the consumer surplus for Theresa, Tom, and Terri when the price of tea is $3.50 per cup.Theresa’s consumer surplus is equal to the area of rectangle A and is the difference between the highest price she would pay—$6—and the market price of $3.50.Tom’s consumer surplus is equal to the area of rectangle B, and Terri’s consumer surplus is equal to the area of rectangle CTotal consumer surplus in this market is equal to the sum of the areas of rectangles A, B, and C, or the total area below the demand curve and above the market price.In panel (b), consumer surplus increases by the shaded area as the market price declines from $3.50 to $3.00.
9 Consumer Surplus & Producer Surplus: Consumer Surplus FIGURE 4-3Total Consumer Surplus in the Market for Chai TeaThe D curve tells us that most buyers of chai tea would have been willing to pay more than the market price of $2.For each buyer, consumer surplus is equal to the difference between the highest P s/he is willing to pay and the market P actually paid.The total amount of consumer surplus in the market for chai tea is equal to the area below the demand curve and above the market price.Consumer surplus represents the benefit to consumers in excess of the price they paid to purchase the product.
10 The Consumer Surplus from Broadband Internet Service Making the ConnectionThe Consumer Surplus fromBroadband Internet ServiceConsumer surplus allows us to measure the benefit consumers receive in excess of the price they paid to purchase a product. This figure shows the consumer surplus that households receive from subscribing to broadband Internet service, which is estimated to be $890.5 million per month.
11 Consumer Surplus & Producer Surplus: Producer Surplus Marginal cost The additional cost to a firm of producing one more unit of a good or service.Producer surplus The difference between the lowest price a firm would be willing to accept for a good or service and the price it actually receives.
12 Panel (a) shows Heavenly Tea’s producer surplus (PS) Panel (a) shows Heavenly Tea’s producer surplus (PS). PS is the difference between the lowest P a firm would be willing to accept and the P it actually receives. The lowest P Heavenly Tea is willing to accept to supply a cup of tea is equal to its marginal cost of producing that cup.When the market P of tea is $1.75, Heavenly receives PS of $0.75 on the first cup (the area of rectangle A), $0.50 on the second cup (rectangle B), and $0.25 on the third cup (rectangle C).In Panel (b), total producer surplus is equal to the area above the supply curve and below the market price, shown in red.FIGURE 4-4Measuring Producer Surplus
13 Consumer Surplus & Producer Surplus: What Consumer Surplus & Producer Surplus Measure Consumer surplus measures the net benefit to consumers from participating in a market, rather than the total benefit.Consumer surplus in a market is equal to the total benefit received by consumers minus the total amount they must pay to buy the good or service.Similarly, producer surplus measures the net benefit received by producers from participating in a market.Producer surplus in a market is equal to the total amount firms receive from consumers minus the cost of producing the good or service.
14 The Efficiency of Competitive Markets 4.2 LEARNING OBJECTIVEUnderstand the concept of economic efficiency.The Efficiency of Competitive MarketsFIGURE 4-5Marginal Benefit (MB) = Marginal Cost (MC) Only at Competitive EquilibriumIn a competitive market, equilibrium occurs at a Q of 15 K cups and a P of $2/cup, where MB = MC. This is the economically efficient level of output because every cup has been produced where the MB to buyers is greater than or equal to the MC to producers.Marginal Benefit = Marginal Cost in Competitive Equilibrium
15 Economic Surplus = CS + PS Efficiency of Competitive Markets:Economic SurplusEconomic surplus The sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus.FIGURE 4-6Economic Surplus = CS + PSThe economic surplus in a market is the sum of the blue area, representing CS,and the red area, representing PS.
16 Efficiency of Competitive Markets: Deadweight LossA competitive equilibrium leads to economic efficiency, with MB to consumers equaling MC of producers.Economic efficiency A market outcome in which the marginal benefit to consumers of the last unit produced is equal to its marginal cost of production and in which the sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus is at a maximum.Deadweight loss (DWL) The reduction in economic surplus resulting from a market not being in competitive equilibrium.
17 Efficiency of Competitive Markets: Deadweight Loss FIGURE 4-7When a Market Is Not in Equilibrium, There Is a Deadweight LossEconomic surplus is maximized when a market is in competitive equilibrium. When a market is not in equilibrium, there is a deadweight loss.When the P of chai tea is $2.20, instead of $2, CS declines from an amount equal to the sum of areas A, B, and C to just area A. PS increases from the sum of areas D and E to the sum of areas B and D. At competitive equilibrium, there is no deadweight loss. At a P of $2.20, there is a deadweight loss equal to the sum of areas C and E.
18 Government Intervention in the Market: Price Floors and Price Ceilings 4.3 LEARNING OBJECTIVEExplain the economic effect of government-imposed price floors and price ceilings.Government Intervention in the Market: Price Floors and Price CeilingsFIGURE 4-8The Economic Effect of a Price Floor in the Wheat MarketIf wheat farmers convince the government to impose a price floor of $3.50/bushel, the amount of wheat sold will fall from 2.0 B bushels/year to 1.8 B.If we assume that farmers produce 1.8 B bushels, PS then increases by the red rectangle A - which is transferred from CS - and falls by the yellow triangle C.CS declines by the red rectangle A plus the yellow triangle B.There is a DWL equal to the yellow triangles B and C, representing the decline in economic efficiency due to the price floor. In reality, a price floor of $3.50 per bushel will cause farmers to expand their production from 2.0 B to 2.2 B bushels, resulting in a surplus of wheat.Price Floors: Government Policy in Some Agricultural Markets
19 Price Floors in Labor Markets: The Debate over Minimum Wage Policy Making the Connection
20 Government Intervention in the Market: Price Ceilings: Government Rent Control Policy in Housing MarketsFIGURE 4-9The Economic Effect of a Rent CeilingWithout rent control, the equilibrium rent is $1,500/mo. At that P, 2 M apartments would be rented.If the government imposes a rent ceiling of $1,000, the Q of apartments supplied falls to 1.9 M,and the Q of apartments demanded increases to 2.1 M, resulting in a shortage of 0.2 M apartments.PS equal to the area of the blue rectangle A is transferred from landlords to renters, and there is a DWL equal to the areas of yellow triangles B and C.Don’t Let This Happen to YOU! Don’t Confuse “Scarcity” with a “Shortage”
21 Solved Problem4-3Black market (illegal market) A market in which buying and selling take place illegally, OR at prices that violate government price regulations.What’s the Economic Effect of a Black Market for Apartments?
22 Gift giving results in a deadweight loss. Making the ConnectionDoes Holiday Gift Giving Have a Deadweight Loss?When you receive a gift, you are constrained because the person who gave the gift has already chosen the product. In many cases, you would have chosen a different gift for yourself.Gift giving results in a deadweight loss.Gift giving may lead to deadweight loss.
23 Government Intervention in the Market: The Results of Government Price Controls: Winners, Losers, and InefficiencyWhen the government imposes price floors or price ceilings, three important results occur:Some people win.Some people lose.There is a loss of economic efficiency.
24 Government Intervention in the Market: Positive and Normative Analysis of Price Ceilings and Price FloorsWhether rent controls or federal farm programs are desirable or undesirable is a normative question.Whether the gains to the winners more than make up for the losses to the losers and for the decline in economic efficiency is a matter of judgment and not strictly an economic question.
25 The Economic Impact of Taxes 4.4 LEARNING OBJECTIVEAnalyze the economic impactof taxes.The Economic Impact of TaxesFIGURE 4-10The Effect of a Tax on the Market for CigarettesWithout the tax, market equilibrium occurs at point A.A $1-per-pack tax on cigarettes will cause the S curve for cigarettes to shift up by $1, from S1 to S2.The new equilibrium occurs at point B. The P of cigarettes will increase by $0.90, to $4.90 per pack, and the quantity sold will fall to 3.7 B packs. The tax on cigarettes has increased the P paid by consumers from $4.00 to $4.90 per pack.Producers receive a P of $4.90 per pack (point B), but after paying the $1 tax, they are left with $3.90 (point C).The government will receive tax revenue equal to the green shaded box.Some CS and some PS will become tax revenue for the government and some will become DWL, shown by the yellow-shaded area.
26 The Economic Impact of Taxes 4.4 LEARNING OBJECTIVEAnalyze the economic impact of taxes.The Economic Impact of TaxesTax Incidence: Who Actually Pays a Tax?Tax incidence The actual division of the burden of a tax between buyers and sellers in a market.
27 The Economic Impact of Taxes: Tax Incidence: Who Actually Pays a Tax? FIGURE 4-11The Incidence of a Tax on GasolineWith no tax on gasoline, P would be $3/gal., and 144 B gals. of gasoline would be sold each year.A 10-cents-per-gallon excise tax shifts up the supply curve from S1 to S2, raises the P consumers pay from $3 to $3.08, and lowers the P sellers receive from $3 to $2.98.Therefore, consumers pay 8 cents of the 10-cents-per-gallon tax on gasoline, and sellers pay 2 cents.Determining Tax Incidence on a Demand and Supply Graph
28 Solved Problem4-4When Do Consumers Pay All of a Sales Tax Increase?
29 The Economic Impact of Taxes: Tax Incidence: Who Actually Pays a Tax? Does It Matter Whether the Government Collects a Tax from Buyers or Sellers?With no tax on gasoline, the D curve is D1.If a 10-cents-per-gal. tax is imposed that consumers are responsible for paying, the D curve shifts down by the amount of the tax, from D1to D2.In the new equilibrium, consumers pay a P of $3.08 per gallon, including the tax.Producers receive $2.98 per gallon. This is the same result we saw when producers were responsible for paying the tax.FIGURE 4-12The Incidence of a Tax on Gasoline Paid by Buyers
30 Making the ConnectionIs the Burden of the Social Security Tax Really Shared Equally between Workers and Firms?
31 Is Rent Control a Lifeline or Stranglehold? AN INSIDE LOOK at Policy>>Is Rent Control a Lifeline or Stranglehold?Rent Control Is the Real New York ScandalThe effect of rent control laws on the supply of affordable apartments.
33 Reminder The first exam is scheduled for June13. More information will be provided in the Chapter 1-4 Review PPTs, uploaded with the other class notes.You can view an old 1st exam by going to the Class Notes Web page and clicking on “old exam 1” in the upper right hand corner.
34 Assignments to be completed before we begin Chapter 5: Pre-Read Ch. 5, including:Review Questions: 3rd ed. p. 160, ; p. 161, 2.1; p. 164, 4.2, 4.3 (2nd ed., p. 166, ; p. 167, 2.1; p. 170, 4.2 & 4.3;1st ed.: 1-6, 11 & 12 on p. 159) andProblems and Applications: 3rd ed. p ; p. 162, 2.5, 3.3; p. 165, 4.5 (2nd ed., p. 166, 1.6; p. 168, 3.3; p. 167, 2.5; p. 170, 4.5;1st ed.: 1, 3, 7 & 17 on pp ).