2 Focus of CMMICMMI is applied hereSW-CMM is applied here
3 Quality Leverage Points Everyone realizes the importance of having a motivated, quality work force but...PEOPLE...even our finest people can’t perform at their best when the process is not understood or operating “at its best.”TECHNOLOGYPROCESSSee notes on slide 5Major determinants of product cost, schedule, and quality
4 Why Focus on Process?Process provides a constructive, high-leverage focus...as opposed to a focus on peopleYour work force, on the average, is as “good” as it is trained to be.Working harder is not the answer.Working smarter, through process, is the answer.as opposed to a focus on technologyTechnology applied without a suitable roadmap will not result in significant payoff.Technology provides the most benefit in the context of an appropriate process roadmap.See notes on slide 5
5 Underlying Premise of Process Improvement “The quality of a product is largely determined by the quality of the process that is used to develop and maintain it.”
6 Categories of Process Improvement Benefits Process improvement benefits fall into eight general categories:improved schedule and budget predictabilityimproved cycle timeincreased productivityimproved quality (as measured by defects)increased customer satisfactionimproved employee moraleincreased return on investmentdecreased cost of qualitySee notes on page 11
7 What is a CMM?Capability Maturity Model: A reference model of mature practices in a specified discipline, used to assess a group’s capability to perform that disciplineCMMs differ byDiscipline (software, systems, acquisition, etc.)Structure (staged versus continuous)How Maturity is Defined (process improvement path)How Capability is Defined (institutionalization)
8 So Many Models, So Little Time Different structures, formats, terms, ways of measuring maturityCauses confusion, especially when using more than one modelHard to integrate them in a combined improvement programHard to use multiple models in supplier selectionEIA 731SoftwareCMMSystems EngrCMMPeopleCMMIPDCMMSoftware AcqCMMSystemsSecurity Engr CMM
9 Bridging the Divide CMMI: Integrates systems and software disciplines into one process improvement framework.Provides a framework for introducing new disciplines as needs arise.
10 The Next Step Is CMM Integration The CMM Integration Project was formed tobuild an initial set of integrated modelsimprove best practices from source models based on lessons learnedestablish a framework to enable integration of future modelscreate an associated set of appraisal and training productsCollaborative endeavor (over 100 people involved)IndustryGovernmentSoftware Engineering Institute (SEI)
11 Enterprise-Wide Improvement CMMI enables organizations that want to pursue process improvement in multiple functional areas to do so with less additional investment for each additional function.CMMI supports process integration and product improvement.CMMI integrates multiple disciplines into one process-improvement framework.CMMI provides a framework for introducing new disciplines as needs arise.
12 Bodies of Knowledge Captured in CMMI Models An organization selects the bodies of knowledge most relevant to achieving its business objectives. Bodies of knowledge* available in CMMI models includesoftware engineering(sw)systems engineering(se)integrated product and process development (IPPD)supplier sourcing (SS)*Each body of knowledge related to product or process development in CMMI is considered a discipline.
13 Software Engineering (SW) SW covers the development of software systemsSW focus on applying systematic, disciplined, and quantifiable approaches to thedevelopment,operationmaintenance
14 System Engineering (SE) Systems engineering covers the development of total systems, which may or may not include softwareSystems engineers focus on transforming customer needs, expectations, and constraints into product solutions and supporting these product solutions throughout the life of the product
15 Integrated Product & process development (IPPD) IPPD is a systematic approach that achieves a timely collaboration of relevant stakeholders throughout the life of the product to better satisfy customer needs, expectations, and requirements
16 Supplier sourcing (SS) As work efforts become more complex, projects may use suppliers to perform functions or add modifications to products that are specifically needed by the project. When those activities are critical, the project benefits from enhanced source analysis and from monitoring supplier activities before product delivery
17 CMMI Models Source Models Capability Maturity Model for Software V2, draft C (SW-CMM V2C)EIA Interim Standard 731, System Engineering Capability Model (SECM)Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity Model, draft V0.98 (IPD-CMM)CMMI-SE/SWStagedRepresentationCMMI-SE/SWContinuousRepresentationCombined System Engineering / Software Engineering modelCan be applied to:Just the software engineering projects in an organizationJust the system engineering projects in an organizationBothIPPD/SS can be used in either/both
18 Understanding CMMI Representations There are two types of representations in the CMMI models:stagedcontinuousA representation allows an organization to pursue different improvement objectivesThe organization and presentation of the data are different in each representation. However, the content is the same.
19 Staged Representation Provides a proven sequence of improvements, each serving as a foundation for the nextPermits comparisons across and among organizations by the use of maturity levelsProvides an easy migration from the SW-CMM to CMMIProvides a single rating that summarizes appraisal results and allows comparisons among organizationsIndicates maturity of an organization’s standard process -- to answer, “What is a good order for approaching improvement across the organization?”
21 Maturity LevelsA maturity level is a well-defined evolutionary plateau of process improvement.There are five maturity levels.Each level is a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement using a proven sequence of improvements, beginning with basic management practices and progressing through a predefined and proven path of successive levels.
22 The Maturity Levels Optimizing 5 Quantitatively Managed 4 Defined 3 2 12345Process unpredictable, poorly controlled, andreactiveProcess characterized for projects and is often reactiveProcess characterized for the organization and is proactiveProcess measured and controlledFocus on continuous process improvementOptimizingQuantitativelyManagedDefinedInitial
23 Maturity Levels Should Not Be Skipped Each maturity level provides a necessary foundation for effective implementation of processes at the next level.Higher level processes have less chance of success without the discipline provided by lower levels.The effect of innovation can be obscured in a noisy process.Higher maturity level processes may be performed by organizations at lower maturity levels, with the risk of not being consistently applied in a crisis.
24 Continuous Representation Allows you to select the order of improvement that best meets your organization’s business objectives and mitigates your organization’s areas of riskEnables comparisons across and among organizations on a process-area-by-process-area basisProvides an easy migration from EIA 731 (and other models with a continuous representation) to CMMIIndicates improvement within a single process area -- to answer, “What is a good order for approaching improvement of this process area?”
25 Capability LevelsA capability level is a well-defined evolutionary plateau describing the organization’s capability relative to a process area.There are six capability levels.For capability levels 1-5, there is an associated generic goal.Each level is a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement.Thus, capability levels are cumulative, i.e., a higher capability level includes the attributes of the lower levels.
26 The Capability Levels 5 Optimizing 4 Quantitatively Managed 3 Defined 1 Performed0 Incomplete
27 Representing Capability Levels for a Single Process Area The process area capability of an implemented process can be represented by a bar.321This point representsa higher level of “maturity”than this pointin a specificprocess areaCapability LevelProcess Area nProcess
28 Relating Process Area Capability and Organizational Maturity Organizational maturity is the focus of the staged representation, whereas process area capability is the focus of the continuous representation.Organizational maturity and process area capability are similar concepts.The difference between them is that organizational maturity pertains to a set of process areas across an organization, while process area capability deals with a set of processes relating to a single process area or specific practice.
29 Comparison of Representations Staged Continuous Process improvement is measured using maturity levels.Maturity level is the degree of process improvement across a predefined set of process areas.Organizational maturity pertains to the “maturity” of a set of processes across an organizationProcess improvement is measured using capability levels.Capability level is the achievement of process improvement within an individual process area.Process area capability pertains to the “maturity” of a particular process across an organization.
30 Advantages of Each Representation StagedProvides a roadmap for implementinggroups of process areassequencing of implementationFamiliar structure for those transitioning from the Software CMMContinuousProvides maximum flexibility for focusing on specific process areas according to business goals and objectivesFamiliar structure for those transitioning from EIA 731
31 CMMI in a NutshellA CMMI model provides a structured view of process improvement across an organizationCMMI can helpset process improvement goals and prioritiesprovide guidance for quality processesprovide a yardstick for appraising current practices
32 Savings vs. cost of software process improvement (median) 5:1 Improvements from Adopting Software CMMSavings vs. cost of software process improvement (median) 5:139%51015202530354035%19%Productivity(increase)Percentage ImprovementTime to market(reduction)Post-releasedefect reports(reduction)Annual Medians
33 Benefits of Continuing Process Improvement SEI Software CMM Level 5: For the Right Reasons*Defects are now nearly all found and fixed before testing begins.Defects escaping into the field have been reduced from 11% to practically 0%.Programs consistently reach customer satisfaction and performance targets.Peer reviews increase total project costs by 4%, but reduced rework during testing by 31%. R.O.I. is 7.75:1.
34 CMM“I” – ImprovementThe CMMI Product Suite provides a foundation for enterprise-wide improvement and addsnew emphasis on products and services as well as processemphasis on both process capability and organizational maturityearly emphasis on measurement and analysisThe CMMI model improves upon Software CMM V1.1 and Software CMM V2.0 Draft C.
35 CMM“I” – Integration Provides expanded model scope for integration Integrated Product ManagementIntegrated Supplier ManagementDecision Analysis and Resolution“Relevant Stakeholder” planning and executionInclusion of the Integrated Product and Process Development body of knowledge
36 Improving on the Software CMM CMMI Models improve on the best practices in Software CMM Version 2.0 Draft C:Incorporates 4+ additional years of learningMore explicitly links management and engineering activities to business objectivesExpands the scope of and visibility into the product life cycle and engineering activities to ensure the product or service meets customer expectationsIncorporates additional areas of best practice (e.g., measurement, risk management, bi-directional traceability in requirements management, decision analysis and resolution, and supplier management)Captures more robust high-maturity practicesAddresses additional generic practices needed for institutionalizationMore fully complies with relevant ISO standards
37 CMMI Can Benefit You CMMI provides Efficient, effective assessment and improvement across multiple process disciplines in an organizationImprovements to best practices incorporated from the Software CMMA common, integrated vision of improvement for all elements of an organizationA means of representing new discipline-specific information in a standard, proven process-improvement context
38 CMMI Product Suite Models Disciplines Systems Engineering SE Software Engineering SWIntegrated Product and Process Development (IPPD)Supplier Sourcing (SS)RepresentationsStagedContinuous
39 Available Models The following CMMI Models exist: SE/SW Staged SE/SW ContinuousSE/SW/IPPD StagedSE/SW/IPPD ContinuousSE/SW/IPPD/SS StagedSE/SW/IPPD/SS ContinuousSW StagedSW Continuous
40 Selecting a Discipline to Use Different model versions existCMMI-SW -- CMMI-SE/SW/IPPDCMMI-SE/SW -- CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/SSYou select which disciplines you wish to use, based on where you are trying to improveExample – A company which engineers and builds computer systems, by acquisition of COTS hardware and development of custom software, using integrated teamsUse CMMI-SW applied only to the software developmentUse CMMI-SE/SW applied to the computer system and the softwareUse CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD applied to the system, software, and use of teamsUse CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD applied to the system, software, teams, and COTS acquisition
41 CMMI Structure one Model, Two Representations Maturity Level 5OID, CARMaturity Level 4OPP, QPMMaturity Level 3REQD, TS, PI, VER,VAL, OPF, OPD, OT,IPM, RSKM, DAROverviewIntroductionStructure of the ModelModel TerminologyMaturity Levels, Common Features, and Generic PracticesUnderstanding the ModelUsing the ModelMaturity Level 2REQM, PP, PMC,SAM, MA, PPQA, CMAppendixesEngineeringREQM, REQD, TS,PI, VER, VALProject ManagementPP, PMC, SAMIPM, RSKM, QPMProcess ManagementOPF, OPD, OT,OPP, OIDPAs- Goals- PracticesSupportCM, PPQA, MA,CAR, DARCMMI-SE/SWStagedCapability Levels and Generic Model ComponentsContinuous
42 Model Components Process Areas (PA) Specific Goals (SG) Required Specific Practices (SP) ExpectedTypical Work Products InformativeSub-practices InformativeNotes InformativeDiscipline Amplifications InformativeReferences InformativeGeneric Goals (GG) RequiredGeneric Practices (GP) ExpectedGeneric Practice Elaborations Informative
43 Practices Practices are the building blocks of the process areas Example - Project Planning Process AreaSpecific Practice Establish a top-level work breakdown structure (WBS) to estimate the scope of the project.To satisfy the required goals, you are expected to perform the practicesMost commercial and defense projects/organizations will implement as writtenYou may perform equivalent practices if they have an equivalent effect toward satisfying the generic or specific goalThese are termed “alternative practices”Less prevalent in CMMI than in SW-CMM, because the CMMI practices are at a slightly higher level of abstraction“Equivalent” is a judgment call – discuss with your appraiser
44 Specific Practices vs. Generic Practices Apply to all process areasDescribe activities that institutionalize the process areasGG 2 Institutionalize a Managed ProcessGP 2.1 Establish an Organizational PolicyGP 2.2 Plan the ProcessGP 2.3 Provide ResourcesGP 2.4 Assign ResponsibilityGP 2.5 Train PeopleGP 2.6 Manage ConfigurationsGP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant StakeholdersGP 2.8 Monitor and Control the ProcessGP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate AdherenceGP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level ManagementGG 3 Institutionalize a Defined ProcessGP 3.1 Establish a Defined ProcessGP 3.2 Collect Improvement InformationApply to a single process areaDescribe activities that implement the process areaExample – Requirements Mgmt.SG 1 Manage RequirementsSP 1.1 Obtain an Understanding of RequirementsSP 1.2 Obtain Commitment to RequirementsSP 1.3 Manage Requirements ChangesSP 1.4 Maintain Bidirectional Traceability of RequirementsSP 1.5 Identify Inconsistencies between Project Work and Requirements
46 Staged Representation: Process Areas by Maturity Level FocusProcess AreasContinuousprocessimprovementOrganizational Innovation and DeploymentCausal Analysis and Resolution5 Optimizing4 QuantitativelyManagedQuantitativemanagementOrganizational Process PerformanceQuantitative Project ManagementRequirements DevelopmentTechnical SolutionProduct IntegrationVerificationValidationOrganizational Process FocusOrganizational Process DefinitionOrganizational Training Integrated Project ManagementIntegrated Supplier ManagementRisk ManagementDecision Analysis and ResolutionOrganizational Environment for IntegrationIntegrated TeamingProcessstandardization3 Defined(SS)(IPPD)2 ManagedBasicprojectmanagementRequirements ManagementProject PlanningProject Monitoring and ControlSupplier Agreement ManagementMeasurement and AnalysisProcess and Product Quality AssuranceConfiguration Management1 Initial
47 Continuous Representation: Organization of Process Areas CategoryProcess AreaProject PlanningProject Monitoring and ControlSupplier Agreement ManagementIntegrated Project Management(IPPD)Integrated Supplier Management (SS)Integrated Teaming (IPPD)Risk Management Quantitative Project ManagementProjectManagementConfiguration ManagementProcess and Product Quality AssuranceMeasurement and Analysis Causal Analysis and ResolutionDecision Analysis and ResolutionOrganizational Environment for Integration (IPPD)SupportRequirements ManagementRequirements DevelopmentTechnical SolutionProduct IntegrationVerificationValidationEngineeringOrganizational Process FocusOrganizational Process DefinitionOrganizational TrainingOrganizational Process PerformanceOrganizational Innovation and DeploymentProcessManagement
48 Process Area Capability Profile A process area capability profile may be represented by a set of points in two dimensions.the process dimension“What” you dothe capability dimension“How well” you do itCapability (How well)Process Area (What you do)
49 An Example Process Area Capability Profile RMPPPMCetc54321C a p a b i l i t y
50 SW-CMM V1.1 vs. CMMI V1.1Key Process Areas (KPAs)Process Areas (PAs)Defect Prevention Causal Analysis and ResolutionTechnology Change Mgmt Organizational Innovation & DeploymentProcess Change ManagementQuantitative Process Mgmt Organizational Process PerformanceSoftware Quality Mgmt Quantitative Project ManagementOrganization Process Focus Organization Process FocusOrganization Process Definition Organization Process DefinitionTraining Program Organizational TrainingIntegrated Software Mgmt Integrated Project ManagementRisk ManagementSoftware Product Engr Requirements DevelopmentTechnical SolutionProduct IntegrationIntergroup Coordination VerificationPeer Reviews ValidationDecision Analysis and ResolutionRequirements Management Requirements ManagementSoftware Project Planning Project PlanningSoftware Project Tracking & Oversight Project Monitoring and ControlSoftware Subcontract Mgmt Supplier Agreement ManagementSoftware Quality Assurance Product & Process Quality AssuranceSoftware Configuration Mgmt Configuration ManagementMeasurement and AnalysisLEVEL 5OPTIMIZINGLEVEL 4MANAGEDLEVEL 3DEFINEDLEVEL 2REPEATABLE50
51 Project Management Process Areas There are eight Project Management Process Areas.Project PlanningProject Monitoring and ControlIntegrated Project Management (IPPD)Risk ManagementSupplier Agreement ManagementQuantitative Project ManagementIntegrated Supplier Management (SS)Integrated Teaming (IPPD)
52 PP - Capability Level 1 Project Planning Specific Practices (CL1 - “Base Practices”)SP1.1-1: Estimate the Scope of the ProjectSP1.2-1: Establish Estimates of Work Product and Task AttributesSP1.3-1: Define Project Life CycleSP1.4-1: Determine Estimates of Effort and CostSP2.1-1: Establish Budget and ScheduleSP2.2-1: Identify Project RisksSP2.3-1: Plan for Data ManagementSP2.4-1: Plan for Project ResourcesSP2.5-1: Plan for Needed Knowledge and SkillsSP2.6-1: Plan Stakeholder InvolvementSP2.7-1: Establish the Project PlanSP3.1-1: Review Plans that Affect the ProjectSP3.2-1: Reconcile Work and Resource LevelsSP3.3-1: Obtain Plan CommitmentGeneric Practices (CL1))GP1.1: Perform Base PracticesIf all of the base practices are performed,Then, the associated Specific Goals and Generic Goal 1 are satisfied,So, the Process Area is rated at Capability Level 1 (CL1) - Performed.
53 Building Process Capability Level 5GenericPracticesOptimizingProcessCapabilityLevel 4GenericPracticesQuantitativelyManagedProcessLevel 3GenericPracticesDefinedProcessLevel 2GenericPracticesManagedProcessPerformedProcess
54 Support Process Areas There are six Support Process Areas: Configuration ManagementProcess and Product Quality AssuranceMeasurement and AnalysisCausal Analysis and ResolutionDecision Analysis and ResolutionOrganizational Environment for Integration (IPPD)
55 Understanding Support Processes Support process areas cover the practices that support product development, maintenance, and acquisition.They provide essential processes used by all the CMMI process areas, and are typically used in the context of performing other processes.
56 Engineering Process Areas There are six Engineering Process Areas.Requirements ManagementRequirements DevelopmentTechnical SolutionProduct IntegrationVerificationValidation
57 Process Management Process Areas There are five Process Management Process Areas:Organizational Process FocusOrganizational Process DefinitionOrganizational TrainingOrganizational Process PerformanceOrganizational Innovation and Deployment
58 Understanding Process Management Process Areas The process management PAs apply across the organization as a whole and provide details that support the Capability Level 3 Generic Goal.For selected PAs, the organization has standard processes, which individual projects tailor to their needs.
59 About IPPD Integrated Product and Process Development IPPD affects all process areas.IPPD is not a discipline like SE or SW.Rather, it is a way of doing business.IPPD is employed in conjunction with the CMMI disciplines (software and systems engineering).Implementation of IPPD shapes how you perform the work in these disciplines.
60 IPPD - DefinitionIPPD provides a systematic approach to product development that achieves a timely collaboration of relevant stakeholders throughout the product life cycle to better satisfy customer needs.
61 Scope of IPPD CMMI SE/SW/IPPD adds to CMMI SE/SW: Two new process areasOrganizational Environment for IntegrationIntegrated TeamingA revised Integrated Project Management (IPPD) process area (adds SG3 and SG4)IPPD amplifications and referencesNew glossary definitions and acronymsOverview material
62 Process Areas Organized by Category Process ManagementOrganizational Process FocusOrganizational Process DefinitionOrganizational TrainingOrganizational Process PerformanceOrganizational Innovation and DeploymentempoweranalyzeProject ManagementProject PlanningProject Monitoring and ControlSupplier Agreement ManagementIntegrated Project Management (for IPPD*)Risk ManagementIntegrated TeamingIntegrated Supplier Management**Quantitative Project ManagementstandardizeprocessesSupportConfiguration ManagementProcess and Product Quality AssuranceMeasurement and AnalysisOrganizational Environment for Integration*Decision Analysis and ResolutionCausal Analysis and ResolutionanalyzeEngineeringRequirements DevelopmentRequirements ManagementTechnical SolutionProduct IntegrationVerificationValidationemploymeasure & assist
63 SummaryThere is one CMMI Model with two representations, Staged and ContinuousThe material in both representations is the same just organized differentlyEach representation provides different ways of implementing processesEquivalent Staging provides a mechanism for relating Maturity Levels to Capability LevelsThe CMMI model should be applied using intelligence, common sense, and professional judgment
64 For More Information About CMMI Go to CMMI Website(annual CMMI Conference)