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Quantum Error Correction Joshua Kretchmer Gautam Wilkins Eric Zhou

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Error Correction Physical devices are imperfect Interactions with the environment Error must be controlled or compensated for –One step has probability to succeed = p –t steps has probability to succeed = p t

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Classical Error Correction Error Model –Channels provide description of the type of error Encoding –Extra bits added to protect logical bit –String of bits codeword –Redundancy Error Recovery –Recovery operation –Measure bits and re-set all values to majority vote

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Bit flip channel: bit is flipped with prob. = p < 1/2 Encoding: Error Recovery: 000 { (000, (1-p) 3 ), (001, p(1-p) 2 ), (010, p(1-p) 2 ), (100, p(1-p) 2 ) (011, p 2 (1-p)), (110, p 2 (1-p)), (101, p 2 (1-p)) (111, p 3 ) } –Prob(unrecoverable error) = 3p 2 (1-p)+p 3 = 3p 2 -2p 3 Classical 3-Bit Code: Bit Flip Errorb bb0b0bbb0b0b

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Problems with QEC No cloning theorem –Can’t copy an arbitrary quantum state –Entanglement Measurement –Cannot directly measure a qubit –Error syndrome Quantum evolution is continuous

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Quantum 3-Bit Code: Bit Flip Error Encoding a|000>+b|111> Error channel –Noise acts on each qubit independently –Probability noise does nothing = 1 - p –Probability noise applies x = p < 1/2 | >=a|0>+b|1> |0> M M X |>|> |0> Encoding Error Channel Diagnose and Correct Decode

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After channel 8 possible results State:Probability: a|000>+b|111>(1-p) 3 a|100>+b|011>p(1-p) 2 a|010>+b|101>p(1-p) 2 a|001>+b|110>p(1-p) 2 a|110>+b|001>p 2 (1-p) a|101>+b|010>p 2 (1-p) a|011>+b|100>p 2 (1-p) a|111>+b|000>p 3 Quantum 3-Bit Code: Bit Flip Error

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After CNOT’s 4 possible results State:Probability: a|000>+b|111>|00>(1-p) 3 a|100>+b|011>|10> p(1-p) 2 a|010>+b|101>|01> p(1-p) 2 a|001>+b|110>|11> p(1-p) 2 a|110>+b|001>|01> p 2 (1-p) a|101>+b|010>|10> p 2 (1-p) a|011>+b|100>|11> p 2 (1-p) a|111>+b|000>|00> p 3

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Measure 2 ancilla qubits error syndrome Measured syndromeaction 00do nothing 01apply x to 3rd qubit 10apply x to 2nd qubit 11apply x to 1st qubit Designed to correct if there’s an error in 1 or no qubits Error in 2 or 3 qubits is an uncontrollable error Quantum 3-Bit Code: Bit Flip Error

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Failing probability p u = 3p 2 (1-p)+p 3 = 3p 2 -2p 3 = O(p 2 ) Fidelity success probability = 1- p u = 1- 3p 2 Without error correction p u = O(p) Quantum 3-Bit Code: Bit Flip Error

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Quantum 3-Bit Code: Phase Error Random rotation of qubits about z-axis Continuous error P( ) = e i 0 = cos( )I +isin( ) z 0e -i - fixed quantity stating typical size of rotation - random angle

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Apply H to each qubit at either end of the channel HIH = HH = I; H z H = x HPH = cos( )I +isin( ) x Same result from bit flip code –Fidelity = 1 - 3p 2 –p = (2 ) 2 /3 for <<1 Quantum 3-Bit Code: Phase Error

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General Quantum Error Errors occur due to interaction with environment |0>|E> 1 |0>|E 1 > + 2 |1>|E 2 > |1>|E> 3 |1>|E 3 > + 4 |0>|E 4 > ( 0 |0> + 1 |1>)|E> 0 1 |0>|E 1 > + 0 2 |1>|E 2 > + 1 3 |1>|E 3 > + 1 4 |0>|E 4 >

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( 0 |0> + 1 |1>)|E> 1/2( 0 |0> + 1 |1>)( 1 |E 1 > + 3 |E 3 >) + 1/2( 0 |0> - 1 |1>)( 1 |E 1 > - 3 |E 3 >) + 1/2( 0 |1> + 1 |0>)( 2 |E 2 > + 4 |E 4 >) + 1/2( 0 |1> - 1 |0>)( 2 |E 1 > - 4 |E 4 >) 0 |0> + 1 |1> = | > 0 |0> - 1 |1> = Z| > 0 |1> + 1 |0> = X| > 0 |1> - 1 |0> = XZ| > General Quantum Error

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( 0 |0> + 1 |1>)|E> 1/2(| >)( 1 |E 1 > + 3 |E 3 >) + 1/2(Z| >)( 1 |E 1 > - 3 |E 3 >) + 1/2(X| >)( 2 |E 2 > + 4 |E 4 >) + 1/2(XZ| >)( 2 |E 1 > - 4 |E 4 >) Error basis = I, X, Z, XZ | > L | > e ( i | > L )| i > e | > L general superposition of quantum codewords i error operator = tensor product of pauli operators General Quantum Error

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Correction of General Errors | > L | > e ( i | > L )| i > e | > L - orthonormal set of n qubit states To extract syndrome attach an n-k qubit ancilla “a” to system perform operations to get syndrome |s i > a |0> a ( i | > L )| i > e |s i > a ( i | > L )| i > e Measure s i to determine i -1 correct for error |s i > a ( i | > L )| i > e |s i > a (| > L )| i > e

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Shor’s Algorithm Each qubit is encoded as nine qubits

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Shor’s Algorithm Assume decoherence on first bit of first triple, becomes:

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Shor’s Algorithm

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No error Z error X error ZX = Y error

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Shor’s Algorithm Success Rate: –Works if only one qubit decoheres –If probability of a qubit decohering is p Probability of 2 or more out of 9 decohering is1- (1+8p)(1-p) 8 36p 2 Therefore probability that 9*k qubits can be decoded is (1-36p 2 ) k

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Shor’s Algorithm More on decoherence –Decoherence probability increases with time –Use watchdog effect to periodically reset quantum state –Unfortunately, each reset introduces small amount of extra error –Therefore cannot store indefinitely

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Steane’s Algorithm Basis 1 is |0 , |1 –Also called basis F, or “flip” basis Basis 2 is |0 + | 1 , |0 - | 1 –Also called basis P, or “phase” basis

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Steane’s Algorithm The word |000…0 consisting of all zeroes in basis 1 is equal to a superposition of all 2 n possible words in basis 2, with equal coefficients. If the jth bit of each word is complemented in basis 1, then all words in basis 2 in which the jth bit is a 1 change sign. Hamming Distance –The number of places two words of the same length differ Minimum Distance –Smallest Hamming distance between any two code words in a code

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Steane’s Algorithm A code of minimum distance d allows [(d-1)/2] to be corrected –If less than d/2 errors occur, the correct original code word that gave rise of the erroneous word can be identified as the only code word at a distance of less than d/2 from the received word. [n,k,d] is a linear set of 2 k code words each of length n, with minimum distance d

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Steane’s Algorithm Parity Check Matrix –Matrix H of dimensions (n-k) by n, where Hv = 0 iff v is in the code C Generator Matrix –Matrix G of dimensions n by k, basis for a linear code – w = cG, where w is a unique codeword of linear code C, and c is a unique row vector For a linear code C in basis 1, a superposition with equal coefficients, then in basis 2 the words of the superposition form the dual code of C The Parity Check Matrix of C is the Generator Matrix for its dual code

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Steane’s Algorithm Let |a and |b be expressed as [7, 3, 4] in basis 1:

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Steane’s Algorithm |a and |b are non-overlapping, and have distance of 3 Find bit flip with parity check Switch to basis 2: –|c =|a +|b Contains only even parity words of a [7,4,3] code –|d =|a -|b Contains only odd parity words Distance between |c and |d is at least 3 Phase error can be found with a parity check

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Implications for Physical Realizations of Quantum Computers

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Why Do We Need It? Quantum computers are very delicate. External interactions result in decoherence and introduction of errors.

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Fault-tolerance Especially important when considering physical implementations. Must consider errors introduced by all parts, including gates. Incorrect syndromes introduce errors.

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Impact on Physical Systems Increased size Level of coherence determines increase

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Alternative to Error Correction Topological Quantum Computing Involves particles called anyons that form braids, whose topology determines quantum state.

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Topological Quantum Computing Slight perturbations to system cause braids to be deformed, but only large disturbances result in them being cut or joined.

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Summary Error correction is vital for physical realizations of trapped particle quantum computers. Allows reliable quantum computation without requiring extremely high levels of coherence.

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