6 Competing Interests Federal agencies Congressional committees Universities and other research institutionsIndividual researchers
7 Federal Agencies Supporting S&T-Related Research Department of EnergyDepartment of DefenseEnvironmental Protection AgencyNational Aeronautics & Space AdministrationNational Science FoundationDepartment of Health and Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health
8 The U.S. Government Includes Both Cabinet Departments and Independent Agencies Major DepartmentsIndependent Agencies
9 NSF Invests inIdeas to provide a deep and broad fundamental science and engineering knowledge base.People to develop a diverse, internationally competitive, and globally engaged workforce of scientists, engineers, and well-prepared citizens.Tools to provide widely accessible, state-of-the-art science and engineering infrastructure.
10 NSF Expects the Collective Outcomes of Its Investments to Yield: Discoveries at and across the frontier of science and engineeringConnections between discoveries and their use in service to societyA diverse, globally-oriented workforce of scientists and engineersImproved achievement in mathematics and science skills needed by all Americans
11 NSF Is a Science Management Agency }Scientists and institutionsresponding to broad civilianscientific needs of the nation30,000 Annual Proposal Actions1,200full-timeemployees60 advisory groups(6,000 members)250,000 reviews(50,000 reviewers)About 20,000 award actionsfor almost $5 billion(academic, industrial, non-profit, governmental recipients)
12 U.S. Government Budgetary Process Executive BranchLegislative BranchExecutive Office of the PresidentCabinet DepartmentsIndependent AgenciesSenateHouse of RepresentativesAuthorizeAppropriateRequestManage
13 House and Senate Authorization Committees House Committee on ScienceJurisdiction over all non-defense federal scientific research and development, including oversight of programs of relevant agencies (e.g., NSF, NASA, EPA).Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and TransportationJurisdiction for, among other things, science and technology policy.Recent ActionLegislation to double NSF’s budget in five years, with new management requirements.
14 House and Senate Appropriation Committees Discretionary programs are funded via 13 separate appropriation bills.Research programs considered in different bills.NSF, for example, competes with NASA and EPA for funding (but not with NIH or DOD).
15 The University System No national universities. System of private and state-funded universities.Federal funds represent approximately 60% of academic R&D spending.Generally speaking, geographic distribution is not a criterion for the allocation of funds.Interests represented by professional associations; i.e., National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges
16 Individual Researchers Funds are awarded for projects conducted by individuals or groups of individuals.Funding decisions generally are made on the basis of a competitive, peer-review process.Interests represented by associations; e.g., American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).Participation in activities of funding agencies via Federal Advisory Committee Act.
18 Advantages Multiple potential sources of funding. “Best” ideas win. Wide ranging set of topics, ideas, and approaches are supported.Opportunities for innovation and support of “risky” proposals.
19 Disadvantages Weakly articulated national policy. Sporadic coordination across agencies.Potential for duplication.Differences in agency funding policies.
20 Office of Science and Technology Policy Broad mandate to advise the President on the impacts of science and technology on domestic and international affairs.Coordinates some interagency activitiesUS Global Change Research ProgramNanotechnology
21 Role of EntrepreneursIn a pluralistic system, lots of points of access and possible influence:Federal agency staff at multiple levelsSurvey and Statistical MethodologyBiocomplexityNanotechnologyCongressional influenceNSF/EPA Partnership for Environmental ResearchChildren’s Research InitiativePresidential directivesClimate Change Research Initiative (CCRI)
22 Future ChallengesContinuing to “make the case” for the value of science for the public goodBalance across the sciencesUniversity/industry partnershipsInternational collaboration