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**Direct Current Circuits**

Chapter 18 Direct Current Circuits

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Chapter 18 emf Resistors in Circuits Kirchhoff’s Rules RC circuits

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**Sources of emf What is emf? What is the SI units?**

What is terminal voltage?

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**Internal Resistance What is internal resistance?**

How do I calculate terminal voltage? What about the circuit? What is an open circuit? What is a load resistance? The case for R>>r

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Example A battery having an emf of 9 V delivers 117 mA when connected to a 72 ohms load. Determine the internal resistance of the battery.

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**Resistors in Series What is a series connection?**

What happens to current? What about voltage? What about equivalent resistance?

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**Equivalent Resistance – Series: An Example**

Four resistors are replaced with their equivalent resistance

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**Resistors in Parallel What is parallel connection?**

What happens to current? What about voltage? How do I calculate equivalent resistance?

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**Equivalent Resistance – Parallel Example**

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**Equivalent Resistance – Complex Circuit**

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Parallel Circuits What is the advantage?

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**Gustav Kirchhoff 1824 – 1887 Invented spectroscopy with Robert Bunsen**

Formulated rules about radiation Formulated the Kirchhoff’s rules

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Kirchhoff’s Rules Why do you need kirchhoff’s rules?

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**Statement of Kirchhoff’s Rules**

Junction Rule The sum of the currents entering any junction must equal the sum of the currents leaving that junction A statement of Conservation of Charge Loop Rule The sum of the potential differences across all the elements around any closed circuit loop must be zero A statement of Conservation of Energy

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**More About the Junction Rule**

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**Setting Up Kirchhoff’s Rules**

Assign symbols and directions to the currents in all branches of the circuit If a direction is chosen incorrectly, the resulting answer will be negative, but the magnitude will be correct When applying the loop rule, choose a direction for transversing the loop Record voltage drops and rises as they occur

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**Convention for loop rule**

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Examples

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RC Circuits What is an RC circuit? What is a time constant?

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**Charging Capacitor in an RC Circuit**

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**Discharging Capacitor in an RC Circuit**

Charge

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Example

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**Electrical Safety Electric shock can result in fatal burns**

Electric shock can cause the muscles of vital organs (such as the heart) to malfunction The degree of damage depends on the magnitude of the current the length of time it acts the part of the body through which it passes

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**Effects of Various Currents**

5 mA or less Can cause a sensation of shock Generally little or no damage 10 mA Hand muscles contract May be unable to let go a of live wire 100 mA If passes through the body for just a few seconds, can be fatal

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Ground Wire Electrical equipment manufacturers use electrical cords that have a third wire, called a case ground Prevents shocks

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**Ground Fault Interrupts (GFI)**

Special power outlets Used in hazardous areas Designed to protect people from electrical shock Senses currents (of about 5 mA or greater) leaking to ground Shuts off the current when above this level

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