MD Review... Define these terms: Growth Maturation Development Phylogenetic Ontogenetic Cephalocaudal Proximodistal Open skills Closed skills
Teaching is a journey! As a teacher you have to: 1.Know where your students are now – starting point (pre-assessment) 2.Know where you want them to go – expectations 3.Know how you will take them there – teaching/learning strategies 4.Know when they have arrived - assessment
Domains of Human Development Psychomotor AffectiveCognitive GOOD TEACHING Analytical Intellectual Rational Reasoning Thinking Influence Inspire Impress Persuade Touch Physical Run Jump Throw
Pre-Assessment of Learners 1. What are their needs? 2. What motivates them? 3.How do they learn? 4.How effectively do they move?
In order for us to answer these questions, we need to look at the research on human development...
What are their needs? Self- actualization Esteem & Self- respect Belonging & Affection Safety & Security Physiological One level must be fulfilled prior to the next level. Maslow’s Hierarchy What DOMAIN? Affective Cognitive
What Motivates them? Kohlberg – moral developmentKohlberg (http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm)http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm Exchange of Favours (ages 6-9) “Good boy - Nice girl” (ages 10-15) Law & Order (ages 15-18)
How do they learn? Learning is closely tied to human development: –Freud – psychosexual developmentFreud –Erikson – psychosocial stagesErikson –Piaget – developmental milestonesPiaget –Havighurst – bio-social interactionHavighurst –Newell – dynamic systems perspectiveNewell –Gardner – multiple intelligencesGardner –Kolb – experiential learningKolb
Do we have to decide? Piaget - we learn based on previous interactions with the ENVIRONMENTPiaget (http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm)http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm Gardner - we learn through our multiple intelligences (each unique to the individual)Gardner (http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr054.shtml)http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr054.shtml
Newell Most contemporary MD theory Dynamic systems perspective “Everything matters” “Everything changes” 3 elements – mover, task, environment Teacher has most control over the TASK
Movement Movements emerge from the interaction among the characteristics of the mover, the demands of the task, and the conditions of the environment.
Movements emerge from the interaction among the characteristics of the mover, the demands of the task, and the conditions of the environment. MOVER MOVER Physical characteristics Cognitive abilities Gender Age Ability/Disability Emotional maturity Attitude Physique ENVIRONMENT Temperature Gravity Land/Water Support Surface Home School Classroom Team Neighbourhood TASK TASK Equipment design Moving in different levels, pathways, or speeds Size of targets Ball handling Balance Accuracy Galloping,Hopping AdaptiveLearning
Teachers should determine the activity options considering the components of the dynamic triangle. The activity options should be within the preference framework of the child. The activity options should be developmentally appropriate The activity options should allow for variety of practice
How effectively do they move? This is where YOU get involved!
5 GROUPS: Physical Growth & Maturation Motor Skills Physical Activity Psychological Factors Developmental Skill Acquisition Discuss what the research says.....
Present 4 pieces of advice to your fellow teachers: 1.Children are NOT miniature adults 2.Boys and girls are more alike than different 3.Good things are earned 4.No Body is perfect NOTE – an example may help!
For Wednesday.... Find out who MUSKA MOSSTON is... Choose ONE of his teaching styles, and summarize it, in ½ page In the second ½ comment on how that teaching style might contribute to student learning based on what we discussed today