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The Muslim World Ahria Golden. Introduction Islam emerged in the 600s Spread across an empire in a few years The Arab empire broke apart Islam continued.

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Presentation on theme: "The Muslim World Ahria Golden. Introduction Islam emerged in the 600s Spread across an empire in a few years The Arab empire broke apart Islam continued."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Muslim World Ahria Golden

2 Introduction Islam emerged in the 600s Spread across an empire in a few years The Arab empire broke apart Islam continued to spread Opened routes for transfer of goods, ideas, and technologies

3 Rise of Islam Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 He was called in a vision to become the messenger of God at about 40 years old Allah Islam is monotheistic They believe in only one god

4 Five Pillars of Islam Muslims accept five basic duties Belief in one God Daily prayer Charity to the poor Fasting The Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca

5 Rise of Islam Continued The Quran contains the sacred word of God and is final authority on all matters Muslim scholars applied the teachings of the Quran to every aspect to daily life Islam is both a religion and a way of life

6 Islam Spreads Muhammad died in 632 Bakr was elected to be the first caliph Successor to Muhammad He launched a military campaign to conquer territory across the Byzantine and Persian empires They believed those who fell in battle would have paradise after they died

7 Islam Spreads Continued A series of rulers led the conquests that carried Islam from the Atlantic to the Indus Valley The Abbassid dynasty moved the capital of Islam to Baghdad and ruled until 1258 Baghdad exceeded Constantinople in size and wealth The Arab empire had fragmented and fallen by the late 1200s Independent Muslim caliphates and states were scattered across North Africa and Iberian peninsula in Europe Mongol converts to Islam ruled the Muslim Middle East

8 Golden Age of Muslim Civilization The Muslim empire united people from diverse cultures Blended Arabs, Persians, Egyptians and other Africans, and Europeans Muslim society was more open than medieval Europe People could advance through society Especially through religious, scholarly, or military achievements Muslim leaders imposed a tax on non-Muslims Allowed other religions to practice their faiths

9 Golden Age of Muslim Civilization Continued Between 750 and 1350, Muslim merchants established a vast trading network Islamic ideas, products, and technology spread across the Muslim world Muslims pioneered the study of algebra Astronomy, philosophy, literature, medicine, and surgery Islamic art reached new heights Developed elaborate mosaics of abstract and geometric patterns

10 Golden Age of Muslim Civilization Continued Domed mosques, or houses of worship, came to dominate Muslim cities Baghdad became a great Muslim center of learning

11 Muslims in India 1,000 Turkish converts to Islam began making raids into India In the late 1100s, a Muslim sultan, or ruler, defeated Hindu armies He set up a capital in Delhi His successors founded the Delhi sultanate, which lasted from 1206 to 1526

12 Muslims and Hindus Widespread destruction of Buddhist monasteries contributed to the decline of Buddhism as a major religion in India Many Hindus were killed and some converted to Islam Muslim rulers grew more tolerant and Indian Muslims absorbed elements of Hindu culture over time

13 Mughal India In 1526, Turkish and Mongol invaders again poured into India At their head rode Babur He swept away the remnants of the Delhi sultanate and set up the Mughal dynasty Ruled from 1526 to 1857 Economic hardships sparked rebellions against the Mughal dynasty in the late 1600s European traders began to work against the Mughal empire, eventually

14 The Ottoman and Safavid Empires The Ottomans and the Safavids dominated the Middle East and parts of Eastern Europe while the Mughals ruled India All three empires owed much of their success to new weapons, including cannons and muskets

15 The Ottoman Empire Turkish-speaking nomadic people who had migrated from Central Asia In the 1300s, they moved across Asia Minor and into the Balkans In 1435, they captured Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul They were a powerful force for 500 years

16 The Ottoman Empire Continued It’s golden age was when Suleiman ruled from 1520 to 1566 Ottoman poets adapted Persian and Arab models to produce works in the Turkish language Painters produced detailed manuscripts and architects designed hundreds of mosques and palaces The empire stretched from Hungary to Arabia and Mesopotamia and across North Africa By the 1700s, European advances in commerce and military technology left the Ottomans behind

17 The Safavid Empire Started a strong empire in present day Iran by the 1500s They were a Turkish-speaking Muslim dynasty They were in many wars because they were in between the Ottomans and the Mughals of India Shah Abbas the Great, a Safavid ruler, ruled from 1588 to 1629

18 The Safavid Empire Continued His capital became the center for the international silk trade The Qajars, a new dynasty, won control of Iran in the late 1700s They ruled until 1925

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