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Integrating HIV and Gender Related Issues into Environmental Assessments in East and Southern Africa Benjamin Ofosu-Koranteng UNDP Regional Center for Africa Addis Ababa, Ethiopia firstname.lastname@example.org
HIV AND AIDS: A LONG WAVE EVENT Despite all the achievements of the last decade, challenges around the following still exist: o Low uptake of HIV testing, o Need for innovative HIV prevention services o Need for sustainability of funding o Addressing the long term structural drivers including migration, stigma and discrimination and weak laws o Interest is now growing in relation to the linkages between increasing HIV infections and large infrastructure projects including the extractive industry 2
AFRICA’S ECONOMIC GROWTH AND THE INFRASTRUCTURE BOOM Africa focussing on the development of its natural resources (including the extractive sector) for which large capital projects are pre-requisites Capital investment into SSA increased by almost 13% between 2012 and 2013 AfDB devoting more than 70% of loans to infrastructure Large infrastructure projects feature in most NDPs e.g. o Mozambique, Uganda, Angola, Ghana, Tanzania, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Guinea Ernst and Young Attractiveness Survey, Africa 2014
HIV AND THE EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY HIV prevalence in the coal mining district of Tete Province (Mozambique) increased by 80% from 2009 to 2011 as the first coal mines started construction Migrant miners aged 30-44 are 15% more likely to be HIV positive A woman whose partner is a migrant miner is 8% more likely to become infected with HIV Coupled with the TB in the mines
BALANCING THE GREEN AND THE BROWN AGENDA Review of EIA legislation in 10 countries and pilot testing of an institutional self assessment tool (the EA Barometer) in 7 countries have revealed gaps in EA policy and practice: The social (including health and HIV) does not currently attract the same attention by developers, regulators, practitioners due to:- o Low capacities o Narrow definition of the term environment o Unwillingness of developers to invest in social assessments and interventions o Weak monitoring of mitigation plans
THE GOAL AND OBJECTIVES OF THE UNDP/AFDB PROJECT Increase awareness of decision makers, CSO and environmental assessment practitioners on the HIV/large infrastructure links Assist officials who plan, administer and manage impact assessments to also consider gender and health (HIV) Assist environmental assessment practitioners to work closely with NAA, MoH, Gender related institutions, Human Rght organizations, CSOs in properly assessing HIV and gender impacts Strengthen existing legal and institutional frameworks and EA practice to ensure that HIV and gender-related issues are better integrated nhanced ability of governments and key EA actors to better integrate gender and health (HIV) issues into the management of Environmental Assessment processes. Enhanced ability of governments and key EA actors to better integrate gender and health (HIV) issues into the management of Environmental Assessment processes.
SO WHAT HAVE WE DONE SO FAR? Reviewed legislation in 10 countries AND Held high level advocacy workshops in 8 ESA countries (2011) Development of a guideline launched jointly by UNDP & AfDB and ToT sessions covering almost 200 government officials from 10 countries conducted (2012/2013) Trained EIA experts (from the private sector) in partnership with IAIASA (2013) 50 CSO sectors of SANAC trained (2014) 8 countries involved in the project: With AfDB, project will scale up to cover 20 countries
CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD Challenges Weak understanding of and a lack of willingness by developers to invest in social interventions Confusion on the role of developers, government and civil society in terms of the planning, programming &execution of social intervention related to EA Lack of general indicators to monitor social impacts and interventions within the EIA process Weak accountability mechanisms Way Forward Awareness-raising at Africa Union & RECs’ level Advocacy & Capacity Building for country and regional stakeholders Strong partnerships between UNDP, AfDB and the AUC, UNEP, ILO, IOM, WHO,RECS Revamping inter-ministerial committees on environment Promote research to generate and share knowledge 9
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