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International Financial Management

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1 International Financial Management
by Jeff Madura Florida Atlantic University

2 International Financing and Cash Management
6 Chapter International Financing and Cash Management

3 Chapter Objectives To describe the Financing of International Trade and common trade financing methods; To describe the International short term Financing and its sources; To Explain working capital management from a subsidiary perspective versus a parent perspective; Explain how cash management can be centralized in order to ensure that cash is used more efficiently; Explain the decision to invest cash internationally

4 Introduction to chapter
Financing means The act of providing funds for business activities, making purchases or investing. Financial institutions and banks are in the business of financing as they provide capital to businesses, consumers and investors to help them achieve their goals. so International Financing means providing funds to carry out international trade and provide funds on short term basis to MNCs. International cash management means the management of cash or working capital by MNCs in their subsidiaries and parent company.

5 Email/ F.B :
Lec# 1 Financing International Trade By: Nusrat ullah noori / F.B :

6 Introduction The financing of international trade means lending, issuing letters of credit, factoring, export credit and insurance. Companies involved with international trade finance include importers and exporters, banks and financiers, insurers and export credit agencies, as well as other service providers. Trade finance is of vital importance to the global economy, with the World Trade Organization estimating that 80 to 90% of global trade is reliant on this method of financing.

7 Payment Methods for International Trade
Following are the Five basic methods of payment used to settle international transactions. Each methods has a different degree of risk to the exporter and importer: ■ Prepayment ■ Letters of credit ■ Drafts (sight/time) ■ Consignment ■ Open account

8 Exhibit 19.1 Comparison of Payment Methods

9 Continued… 1. Prepayment Same as cash in advance
Payment usually by wire transfer Method offers exporter greatest degree of protection Usually requested when First time buyer Danger of pre-shipment cancellation Importer country has high political risk

10 Continued… 2. Letters of Credit
A letter of credit is a document issued by a financial institution, or a similar party, assuring payment to a seller of goods and/or services provided certain documents have been presented to the bank. These are documents that prove that the seller has performed the duties under an underlying contract (e.g., sale of goods contract) and the goods (or services) have been supplied as agreed. In return for these documents, the beneficiary receives payment from the financial institution that issued the letter of credit. The letter of credit serves as a guarantee to the seller that it will be paid regardless of whether the buyer ultimately fails to pay.

11 Continued… 3. Drafts (or bill of exchange)
An unconditional promise drawn by one party, usually the exporter, instructing the buyer to pay the face amount of the draft upon presentation. Draft represents the exporter’s formal demand for payment from the buyer. Draft affords the exporter less protection than an L/C because the banks are not obligated to honor payments on the buyer’s behalf.

12 Continued… 4. Consignment
Exporter ships the goods to the importer while still retaining actual title to the merchandise. The importer has access to the inventory but does not have to pay for the goods until they have been sold to a third party. The exporter is trusting the importer to remit payment for the goods sold at that time. If the importer fails to pay, the exporter has limited recourse because no draft is involved and the goods have already been sold.

13 Continued… 5. Open Account
The opposite of prepayment - the exporter ships the merchandise and expects the buyer to remit payment according to the agreed-upon terms. The exporter is relying fully upon the financial creditworthiness, integrity, and reputation of the buyer. Method is used when the seller and buyer have mutual trust and a great deal of experience with each other.

14 Email/ F.B :
Lec# 2 International Trade Finance Methods By: Nusrat ullah noori / F.B :

15 Trade Finance Methods Following are the Six basic methods of Trade Finance used to settle international transactions. Accounts receivable financing/ Factoring Letters of credit (LOCs) Banker’s acceptances Working capital financing Medium-term capital goods financing (forfaiting) Countertrade

16 Continued … 1. Accounts Receivable Financing/ Factoring
Could take the form of an open account shipment or a time draft. The bank will provide a loan to the exporter secured by an assignment of the account receivable. Accounts receivable financing is a way to quickly convert receivables into cash. Factoring, also known as accounts receivable financing, is a form of asset-based lending that can boost a company’s short-term cash flow. Companies sell their invoices to a factoring company in exchange for an immediate advance on the total.


18 Continued … 2. Letters of Credit ( L/C )
A letter from a bank guaranteeing that a buyer's payment to a seller will be received on time and for the correct amount. In the event that the buyer is unable to make payment on the purchase, the bank will be required to cover the full or remaining amount of the purchase. Use of Drafts Also known as a bill of exchange, a draft is an unconditional promise drawn by one party, usually the exporter, requesting the importer to pay the face amount of the draft at sight or at a specified future date.

19 Continued … B. Bill of Loading (B/L)
serves as a receipt for shipment and a summary of freight charges. It conveys title to the merchandise. A B/L includes the following provisions: A description of the merchandise Identification marks on the merchandise Evidence of loading (receiving) ports Name of the exporter (shipper) Name of the importer Status of freight charges (prepaid or collect) Date of shipment

20 Continued … Commercial Invoice (currency)
exporter’s (seller’s) description of the merchandise being sold to the buyer is the commercial invoice, which contains: Name and address of seller Name and address of buyer Date Terms of payment Price, including freight, handling, and insurance if applicable Quantity, weight, packaging, etc. Shipping information

21 Continued … 3. Banker’s Acceptance Bill of exchange, or time draft, drawn on and accepted by a bank. It is the accepting bank’s obligation to pay the holder of the draft at maturity. 4. Working Capital Financing The bank may provide short-term loans beyond the banker’s acceptance period. 5. Medium-Term Capital Goods Financing (Forfaiting) Similar to factoring in that the forfeiter (or factor) assumes responsibility for the collection of payment from the buyer, the underlying credit risk, and the risk pertaining to the countries involved.

22 Continued … 6. Countertrade
Denotes all types of foreign trade transactions in which the sale of goods to one country is linked to the purchase or exchange of goods from that same country. Some types of countertrade, such as barter, have been in existence for thousands of years. Recently countertrade gained popularity and importance.

23 Exhibit 19.3 Documentary Credit Procedure

24 Exhibit 19.4 Banker’s Acceptance

25 Exhibit 19.5 Life Cycle of a Typical Banker’s Acceptance (B/A)

26 Email/ F.B :
Lec# 3 International Short-Term Financing By: Nusrat ullah noori / F.B :

27 Introduction All firms make short-term financing decisions periodically. Beyond the trade financing discussed in the previous slides, MNCs obtain short-term financing to support other operations as well. Because MNCs have access to additional sources of funds, their short-term financing decisions are more complex than those of other companies. Financial managers must understand the possible advantages and disadvantages of short term financing with foreign currencies so that they can make short-term financing decisions that maximize the value of the MNC.

28 Sources of short term Financing
MNC parents and their subsidiaries typically use various methods of obtaining short term funds to satisfy their liquidity needs. Following are common methods; Short-Term Notes Commercial Paper Bank Loans Internal financing Financing with foreign currency

29 Continued … 1. Short-Term Notes:
Issuing of short-term notes, or unsecured debt securities is one of the common methods used by MNCs to meet short term deficits . In Europe, the securities are referred to as Euro-notes. The interest rates on these notes are based on the interest rate Euro-banks charge on interbank loans. Short-term notes typically have maturities of 1, 3, or 6 months. Some MNCs continually roll them over as a form of intermediate-term financing. Commercial banks underwrite the notes for MNCs, and some commercial banks purchase them for their own investment portfolios.

30 Continued … 2. Commercial Paper:
In addition to short-term notes, MNCs also issue commercial paper to meet their short term financial needs . In Europe, this is sometimes referred to as Euro-commercial paper. Dealers issue commercial paper for MNCs without the backing of an underwriting syndicate, so a selling price is not guaranteed to the issuers. Maturities can be tailored to the issuer’s preferences. Dealers may make a secondary market by offering to repurchase commercial paper before maturity.

31 Continued … 3. Bank Loans:
They are Direct loans from banks, which are typically utilized to maintain a relationship with banks. They are another popular source of short-term funds for MNCs. If other sources of short-term funds become unavailable, MNCs rely more heavily on direct loans from banks. Most MNCs maintain credit arrangements with various banks around the world. Some MNCs have credit arrangements with more than 100 foreign and domestic banks.

32 Continued … 4. Internal short-term financing:
Before an MNC’s parent or subsidiary in need of funds searches for outside funding, it should check other subsidiaries’ cash flow positions to determine whether any internal funds are available. Internal Control over Funds - An MNC should have an internal system that consistently monitors the amount of short-term financing by all subsidiaries. Previously 3 other types are external sources of short term financing. MNCs had limited access to short-term funding during the credit crisis. This process is especially feasible during periods when the cost of obtaining funds in the parent’s home country is relatively high.

33 Continued … 5. Financing with foreign currency:
Regardless of whether an MNC parent or subsidiary decides to obtain financing from subsidiaries or from some other source, it must also decide which currency to borrow. Even if it needs its home currency, it may prefer to borrow a foreign currency. Reasons for this preference follow: MNCs borrow foreign currency, sometimes to match future cash inflows. Comparison of interest rates among currencies./ to reduce cost Developing countries tend to have higher inflation and a low level of saving, causing interest rates to be relatively high.

34 Determining the Effective Financing Rate
The actual or “effective” financing rate will differ from the quoted rate based on: The interest rate charged by the bank. The movement in the borrowed currency’s value over the time of the loan. where rf = effective financing rate S = spot rate if = interest rate of the foreign currency

35 Email/ F.B :
Lec# 4 International Cash Management / Working Capital Management By: Nusrat ullah noori / F.B :

36 Multinational Working Capital Management
Subsidiary Expenses The subsidiary will normally have a more difficult time forecasting future outflow payments if its purchases are international rather than domestic because of exchange rate fluctuations. Subsidiary Revenue Subsidiaries’ sales volume may be more volatile than if the goods were only sold domestically. Accounts receivable management is an important part of the subsidiary’s working capital management because of its potential impact on cash inflows.

37 Multinational Working Capital Management
Subsidiary Dividend Payment When dividend payments and fees are known in advance and denominated in the subsidiary's currency, forecasting cash flows is easier.. Subsidiary Liquidity Management After accounting for all outflow and inflow payments, the subsidiary may have excess or deficient cash. It uses liquidity management to invest excess cash or borrow to cover cash deficiencies.

38 Centralized Vs. Decentralized Cash Management
Decentralized management is not optimal because it will force MNC to maintain larger cash investment than necessary. MNCs commonly use centralized cash management to monitor and manage the parent-subsidiary and inter-subsidiary cash flows.

39 Exibit 21.1 Cash Flow of the Overall MNC

40 Accommodating Cash Shortages
A key role of the centralized cash management division is to facilitate the transfer of funds from subsidiaries with excess funds to those that need funds. Technology Used to Facilitate Fund Transfers A centralized cash management system needs continual flow of information about currency positions to determine whether one subsidiary’s shortage of cash can be covered by another subsidiary’s excess cash. Monitoring of Cash Positions The centralized cash management division serves as a monitor over the subsidiaries because it can detect potential financial problems.

41 Optimizing Cash Flows Accelerating Cash Inflows using lockboxes and preauthorized payments. Minimizing currency conversion costs by netting, using a bilateral netting system or a multilateral netting system. Managing blocked funds by incurring costs within the country or using transfer pricing. Managing intersubsidiary cash transfers by using a leading or lagging strategy.

42 Complications in Optimizing Cash Flow
Company related characteristics If one of the subsidiaries delays payments to other subsidiaries, the other subsidiaries may be forced to borrow. A centralized approach that monitors all intersubsidiary payments should minimize such problems. Government restrictions The existence of government restrictions can disrupt a cash flow optimization policy. Limitations of Banking Systems The abilities of banks to facilitate cash transfers for MNCs vary among countries.

43 Exhibit 21.4 Considerations When Investing Excess Cash

44 Chapter Review Financing International Trade
International trade payment methods ■ Prepayment ■ Letters of credit ■ Drafts (sight/time) ■ Consignment ■ Open account International trade Financing methods 1. Accounts receivable financing/ Factoring 2. Letters of credit (LOCs) 3. Banker’s acceptances Working capital financing 5. Medium-term capital goods financing 5. Countertrade International Short-Term Financing Sources of short term Financing 1. Short-Term Notes 2.Commercial Paper 3. Bank Loans 4.Internal financing 5. Financing with foreign currency International Cash Management / Working Capital Management 1. Subsidiary Expenses 2.Subsidiary Revenue 3.Centralized Vs. Decentralized Cash Management etc..

45 Thank you All For Being with us

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