A Day-9/17 B Day-9/18 Objective Agenda
TLW analyze examples of how art, architecture, literature, music, and drama reflect the history of the cultures in which they are produced Rome: Romulus and Remus Identify the characteristics of the following political systems: theocracy, absolute monarchy, democracy, republic, oligarchy, limited monarchy, and totalitarianism Agenda Introduction to the Roman Empire Roman Numeral Activity Rome: Engineering an Empire
The Myth of Rome’s Founding: Romulus and Remus
Discussion Topic: Do you think Faustulus was justified taking the twins from the wolf? Why or why not? Romulus and Remus took stolen goods and returned them to their rightful owners. What story has a similar plot during a later historical time period? Do you feel Romulus should have become a god? Why or why not? Almost all cultures have stories that explain their beginnings. Why do you think Romans used Romulus and Remus for that purpose?
Courage, loyalty, and devotion to duty were the pillars on which Romans would build an empire
Geography of Italy Peninsula that juts out into the Mediterranean Sea
Looks like a boot Italy’s central location helped the Romans expand their power The lack of major geographic barriers helped Rome unify Italy Unlike Greece remember that Greece’s mountains caused city-states Rome
People of Italy Latins Etruscan (Greek city-state) North of Rome
Roman ancestors that migrated into Italy by about 800 B.C. Settled amongst the seven hills along the Tiber River This settlement would grow into Rome Etruscan (Greek city-state) North of Rome Ruled much of central Italy, including Rome itself Romans adopted their alphabet, architecture, and religion Conquered by the Romans in 509 B.C.
The Roman Republic The Government Takes Shape
Romans set up a new government that they called a Republic Romans believed that the Republic would keep any individual from gaining too much power Senate Held most of the governing power 300 members called patricians (members of the landholding upper class) Served for life and made the laws Each year the senators elected two consuls from the patrician Consuls job was to supervise the business of government and command the armies Consuls could only serve one term (system to check on the power of government)
The Roman Republic The Government Takes Shape (Continued)
During time of war, the senate might choose a dictator Granted power to rule for six months Romans admired Cincinnatus as a model dictator
The Roman Republic Plebeians Demand Equality
Plebeians are farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders who made up a bulk of the population, but had little influence on the government Their first breakthrough came when they had the government inscribe the laws of Rome on 12 tablets and set it in the Forum, or marketplace for all to see In time, Plebeians gained the right to elect their own officials, called tribunes, to protect their interest, and the tribunes could veto laws that they felt were harmful to Plebeians Eventually, Plebeians were able to serve on the Senate Framers of the United States Constitution would adapt such Roman ideas as the senate, the veto, and checks
Changing Role of Women Over the centuries, women, especially patricians, gained more freedom and influence.
Education and Religion
Boys and girls were taught to read and write, including those in lower classes. The wealthy hired private tutors in the late republic. Religion Gods adapted from Greeks and Etruscans Jupiter- ruled over the sky and other gods. Held many religious festivals and worshiped in many temples.
Expansion in Italy By 270 B.C., the Roman armies conquered most of the Italian peninsula Success=diplomacy & loyal, well trained army Conquered Lands: generally treated with justice. Conquered peoples had to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers for the Roman army Most remained loyal because Rome allowed them to keep their own customs, money, and local governments Roman Legion (5,000)
Roman Numerals V = 5 quinque X = 10 decem L = 50 quinquaginta
I = unus V = quinque X = decem L = quinquaginta C = centum D = quingenti M = mille
Roman Numerals Here are four basic principles for reading and writing Roman numerals: A letter repeats its value that many times (XXX = 30, CC = 200, etc.). A letter can only be repeated three times. If one or more letters are placed after another letter of greater value, add that amount. VI = 6 (5 + 1 = 6) LXX = 70 ( = 70) MCC = 1200 ( = 1200)
Roman Numerals If a letter is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount. IV = 4 (5 – 1 = 4) XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90) CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900) Several rules apply for subtracting amounts from Roman numerals: a. Only subtract powers of ten (I, X, or C, but not V or L) For 95, do NOT write VC (100 – 5). DO write XCV (XC + V or ). b. Only subtract one number from another. For 13, do NOT write IIXV (15 – 1 – 1). DO write XIII (X + I + I + I or ).
Roman Numerals c. Do not subtract a number from one that is more than 10 times greater. (That is, you can subtract 1 from 10 [IX] but not 1 from 20 – there is no such number as IXX.) For 99, do NOT write IC (C – I or 100 – 1). DO write XCIX (XC + IX or ). A bar placed on top of a letter or string of letters increases the numeral's value by 1,000 times. XV = 15, XV= 15,000
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