What is a Reinforcer? a. Any event that strengthens or increases a response. b. Something the individual finds pleasant. c. Anything that decreases a response. d. An incentive. a
What learning process did B.F. Skinner describe? a) Classical Conditioning b) Operant Conditioning c) Modeling d) Observational Learning b
What is a punishment? a) An unpleasant event or stimulus. b) Any undesired event or stimulus that weakens or decreases a behavior. c) A disagreeable consequence. d) Something the individual dislikes. b
This learning procedure utilizes reinforcement to guide a response in closer and closer approximations to a desired behavior: a) Shaping b) Observational Learning c) Partial Reinforcement d) Conditioning "a".
Negative reinforcement increases the strength or frequency of a response by __________ an aversive stimulus. a) Increasing b) Decreasing c) Removing d) Ignoring "c".
The sudden reappearance of a response after a period of extinction is known as: a) Stimulus generalization b) Extinction c) Stimulus discrimination d) Spontaneous recovery d
An employee receives a reward for his work, but the reinforcement is only awarded for the first response after a specified period of time. This schedule produces a high rate of response near the end of the specified time period, with a drop in response after the reward has been given. What type of reinforcement schedule is being used? a) Variable Ratio Schedule b) Fixed Ratio Schedule c) Variable Interval Schedule d) Fixed Interval Schedule "d".
While Ivan Pavlov is famous for his contributions to psychology, he was actually a: a) Linguist b) Physiologist c) Zoologist d) Botanist b
In Pavlov’ s classic experiment with dogs, the food was the: a) Unconditioned Stimulus b) Unconditioned Response c) Conditioned Stimulus d) Conditioned Response a
Which of the following is true of learning? a) Learning is relatively permanent. b) Learning involves a change in behavior. c) Learning occurs through experience. d) All of the above d
In John Watson’s famous experiment, Little Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat, but he also demonstrated a fear of other furry, white objects. This is an example of: a) Phobic behavior b) Stimulus discrimination c) Stimulus generalization d) Superstitious behavior c
In classical conditioning, the natural and unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is known as the: a) Unconditioned Stimulus b) Unconditioned Response c) Conditioned Stimulus d) Conditioned "b".
Which of B.F. Skinner's schedules of reinforcement is the most difficult to extinguish? (Hint: Gambling utilizes this reinforcement schedule). a) Variable Interval b) Variable Ratio c) Fixed Interval d) Fixed Ratio b
Innate reinforcers such as food and water that diminish a biological need are known as: a) Primary Reinforcers b) Secondary Reinforcers a
Who is famous for saying, “ Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” a) B.F. Skinner b) Ivan Pavlov c) Edward Thorndike d) John Watson d