Presentation on theme: "2 THEME The important thing from the point of view of fire safety is – how one interprets these properties. Thorough knowledge is essential to understand."— Presentation transcript:
2 THEME The important thing from the point of view of fire safety is – how one interprets these properties. Thorough knowledge is essential to understand such properties, and their practical implications. In view of the large number of flammable/explosive chemicals being handled and used by a wide spectrum of industries, this knowledge is a basic safety requirement today.
3 WHAT IS FIRE A FIRE is voluntarily advancing procedure: combustion of one or more inflammable materials & releasing energy Fire is a chemical reaction between oxygen and carbon (or even hydrogen and carbon) in which heat and light energies are also released. combination which may be defined as a chemical reaction of quick oxidation accompanied with development of light & heat. FUEL + HEAT ENERGY + OXYGEN/ AIR = FIRE
4 FIRE TRIANGLE There are THREE BASIC ELEMENTS responsible for - PRODUCTING FIRE: Presence of FUEL VAPOUR Presence of OXYGEN Presence of HEAT/ SOURCE OF IGNITION THIS COMBINATION CAUSING COMBUSTION IS REFERRED AS FIRE TRIANGLE AND ILLUSTRATED IN NEXT FIGURE. FIRE TRIANGLE AIR/OXYGENFUEL IGNITION SOURCE / TEMPERATURE /HEAT CHEMISTRY OF FIRE
5 HOW TO EXTINGUISH A FIRE There are three fire extinguishing methods : Starvation :- by removing fuel from fire. - By cutting of fuel supply [ Most effective for gas fire ] Smothering:- blanketing of fuel by coating material, - by inserting of gas, steam/vaporizing liquid Cooling: -natural cooling ( water spray is the most commonly used) [ effective for oxidizing chemicals, tank fires, etc.,] Breaking chain reaction – fourth method
6 CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE Class A Fires. Fires in ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics. Class B Fires. Fires in flammable liquids, combustible liquids, petroleum greases, oils, oil-based paints, solvents, and flammable gases.
7 Class C Fires. Fires that involve GAS & energized electrical equipment where the electrical non conductivity of the extinguishing media is of importance. (When electrical equipment is de-energized, fire extinguishers for Class A or Class B fires can be used safely.) Class D Fires. Fires in combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, sodium, and potassium.
1010 CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES & SUITABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
1 FIRE EXTINGUISHER Types of Fire Extinguisher: 1) DCP Extinguisher DCP Extinguisher is of 5 kg & 10 kg capacity gas cartridge type, and of 25 & 50 kg capacity trolley mounted type. This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class B,C &D DCP Extinguisher contains sodium bi carbonate as extinguisher media. (white colour) Duration time is around 1 min.
1212 FIRE EXTINGUISHER 2) C02 Extinguisher CO2 Extinguisher is of 2.0 kg, 4.5 kg & 9 kg capacity and of 22.5 kg capacity trolley mounted type. This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class B & C CO2 Extinguisher contains Carbon Di-oxide as extinguisher media. Duration time is around 25 to 60 sec..
1313 FIRE EXTINGUISHER 3) ABC Extinguisher Generally available in 5Kg This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class A, B & C Nitrogen Gas is filled at 15 kg/cm 2 pressure on Light Yellow DCP. Duration time is around 45 to 60 sec..
1414 FIRE EXTINGUISHER 4) Mechanical Foam Type Generally available in 9 lit & 50 lit This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class B. Synthetic Foam is filled in it. CO 2 Gas Cartridge is fitted for operation.
1717 HOW TO USE FIRE EXTINGUISHER P ull the pin This will allow you to squeeze the handle in order to discharge the extinguisher
1818 HOW TO USE FIRE EXTINGUISHER A im at the base of the fire Aiming at the middle will do no good. The agent will pass through the flames.
1919 HOW TO USE FIRE EXTINGUISHER S queeze the handle This will release the pressurized extinguishing agent
2020 HOW TO USE FIRE EXTINGUISHER S weep side to side Cover the entire area that is on fire. Continue until fire is extinguished. Keep an eye on the area for re-lighting.
2121 KEY POINTS FLASH POINT : Flash point is the minimum temperature at which sufficient vapor given a momentary flash in presence of air AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE: It the lowest temperature at which material begins to burn with out heat in presence of air
2 Fire Hazards at our Plant FO Storage Tank Melting Furnace & Molten Metal Welding Operation Gas Cutting Operation Short-Circuits Diesel Drums Oil Spillage LPG Cylinder
2323 We have total 123 Fire Extinguishers Water / CO2 Type – (9 lit): 02 Mechanical Foam Type (9 lit): 04 Mechanical Foam Type(50 lit): 03 CO2 Type (2 Kg): 06 CO2 Type (4.5 Kg): 27 DCP Type (5 Kg): 73 DCP Type (10 Kg): 04 ABC Type (5 Kg): 04 Fire protection & prevention
2424 Precaution at the time of Fire Fighting Extinguishing agent eliminates one of the vital elements of the fire Many types of extinguishers available Know location of extinguishers Alarm has been sounded Building has been evacuated Fire is small and confined You can fight the fire with your back toward an escape route The extinguisher matches the fire type The extinguisher works effectively You are properly trained in the use of the extinguisher You are confident you can put the fire out
2525 Personal hazards Smoke and noxious fumes Smoke and fumes cause unconsciousness Death may result