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Chapter 5 Rotation of a Rigid Body

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§5-5 Angular Momentum of a rigid Body Conservation of Angular Momentum §5-1 Motion of a Rigid body §5-2 Torque The Law of Rotation rotational Inertia §5-3 Application the Law of Rotation §5-4 Kinetic Energy and Work in Rotational Motion

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§ 5-1 § 5-1 Motion of a Rigid body 1. Rigid body The body has a perfectly definite and unchanged shape and size no matter how much external force acts on it. 2. Motion forms of rigid body Translation( 平动 ) Can be regarded as a particle The distance between two points in a rigid body maintains constant forever

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Rotation Rotating around axis Rotating around a point Fixed axis Moving axis --Superposition of several rotations around axis axis

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Translation + rotation

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3. Rotation of a rigid body around a fixed axis Every point of the rigid body moves in a circle P Q axis They have the same angular displacement, angular speed & angular acceleration. Select arbitrary point P. P’s rotation can represent the rotation of the rigid body.

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P Q axis Angular position Angular displacement Angular speed Angular acceleration

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4. Relation between angular and linear quantities z x 0 P

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§5-2 Torque The Law of Rotation Rotational Inertia 1. Torque F r φ d M is located in the plane perpendicular to the axis

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F r No effect at all to rotate the rigid body around the axis F F 2 1 is not placed in the plane perpendicular to the axis Only is useful for the rotation around the axis

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0 0` 2. The law of rotation

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Use Newton’s second law to Tangential component The radial component of force passes through the axis and can’t cause the body to rotate. Multiply both side by r i, External torque Internal torque

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--Law of rotation For entire rigid body resultant external torque M Rotational inertia I resultant internal torque =0

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3. Calculation of moment of inertia The magnitude of moment of inertia depends on the total mass and mass distribution of body, the location and orientation of the axis. discrete particles It describes the rotating inertia of a rigid body about an axis. --the rotational inertia (moment of inertia) of the rigid body about the axis

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—the mass per unit length the mass distribution over a surface —the mass per unit area the mass distribution over a volume —the mass per unit volume the mass distribution over a line Continuous distribution of mass

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Exa. A slender rod has mass m ， length l. Find its I about some axis follow as ⑴ the axis through O and perpendicular with the rod. ⑵ the axis through an end of the rod and perpendicular with it. ⑶ The axis at arbitrary distance h from O m l o Solution ⑴

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m l ⑵

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m l h ⑶ --Parallel-axis theorem

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Perpendicular-axis theorem -- -- Perpendicular-axis theorem Suppose a thin board is located in xOy plane

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Calculate the Acce. of the blocks and the tension of the rope. Example are fastened together by a weightless rope across a fixed pulley ( ) < The pulley has mass and radius. There is a fractional torque exerting on the axis. The rope does not slip over the pulley. §5-3 Application the Law of Rotation

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Solution According to New.’s Second Law ： ： According to Rotational Law Pulley ：

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We get

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Example A uniform circular plate with mass m and radius R is placed on a roughly horizontal plane. At the beginning, the plate rotates with angular speed 0 around the axis across the center of it. Suppose the fractional coefficient between them is . Calculate how many times does the plate rotate before it stops?

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Solution Select mass unit r dr R

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The friction exerts on Frictional torque correspondingly

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According to We have We get Question How many revolutions does the plate rotate before it stops?

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§5-4 §5-4 Kinetic Energy and Work in Rotational Motion 1. The work done by torque 0 0 As The rigid rotating f rom The work done by the torque

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2. Kinetic Energy of rotation s KE of rotation For the entire rigid body

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Then 3. The theorem of KE of a RB rotating about a fixed axis as -- KE of rotation

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-- The theorem of KE of a RB rotating about a fixed axis 4. Gravitational potential energy of RB …can be seen as the GPE of a particle located on the center of mass with the same mass of m.

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Example A uniform thin rod m, l ， One end is fixed. Find its of point A as it rotate angular from horizontal line? m 、 lm 、 l O A A

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Solution O l as

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We get

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Another solution Use conservation law of energy of rigid body, we can get first. Then use Or use We can get then We can get the Acce. of A finally

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the angular momentum of : Direction §5-4 §5-4 Angular Momentum of a rigid Body Conservation of Angular Momentum 1. Angular momentum of a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis

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Angular momentum of a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis ： 2. Angular momentum theorem As Direction: Same as ， we have integration

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=Constant when M=0 3. Conservation Law of Angular Momentum ---impulse torque —Angular momentum theorem of a rigid body

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Example The rotational inertia of a person and round slab is I 0. The mass of dumbbell is m. Their rotating angular speed is 0 and the rotating radius of m is r 1 at the beginning. Calculate: The angular speed and the increment of the mechanical energy when the arms of the person contracts from r 1 to r 2 r r 1 2 m m I0I0

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Person + round slab + dumbbells = system Resultant external torque is zero. So its angular momentum is conservative.

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The increment of the mechanical energy

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Example A round platform has mass of M and radius of R. It can rotates around a vertical axis through its center. Suppose all resistant force can be neglected. A girl with mass of m stands on the edge of the platform. At the beginning, the platform and the girl are at rest. If the girl runs one revolution, how much degree does the girl and the platform rounds relative to the ground, respectively?

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R M m

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Let ： be rotational inertia of the girl and the platform. Resultant external torque of system = 0 be angular speed of the girl and the platform relative to the ground. Solution then ： Angular momentum is conservative ： And

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We get ： The girl relative to the platform ： Let t refer to the time that the girl runs one revolution on the platform, then ：

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The girl rounds relative to the ground ： The platform rounds relative to the ground ：

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Example A uniformly thin rod has M,2l. It can rotate in vertical plane around the horizontal axis through its mass center O. At the beginning, the rod is placed along the horizontal position. A small ball with mass of m and speed of u falls to one end of the rod. If the collision between the ball and the rod is elastic. Find the speed of the ball and the angular speed of the rod after they collide each other.

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Solution As mg of the ball << the impulse force between the ball and the rod Then the resultant external torque of the system with respect to O = 0. So we can neglect mg during colliding.

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As the collision is elastic, then the mechanical energy of the system is conservative The angular momentum of the system is conservative. And

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Solve above equations, we get Rod’s Ball’s

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