2 WHAT?Story structureHow stories are systematically organizedStory structure gives predictable meaning to storiesHow stories are structuredSettingCharactersPlotTheme
3 WHAT?Story structure knowledge drives the application of comprehension strategies to narrative textStrategy ApplicationRecognizing story structure enhances memoryAsking questions helps promote active readingAnswering questions directed by the teacher promote deeper level of comprehensionMonitoring comprehension involves noting progressionConnecting to world knowledge enables students to understandPredictable phrases are excellent for developing skills of predictionConstructing mental imagesSummarizing or retelling
4 WHAT? Multiple-Strategy Instruction Program: TSI Emphasizes collaborative discussion among learnersFocuses onMetacognitionMotivationReader responseUnderstanding text equally important to learning use of comprehension strategies“Transactions” between text, readers, peers and teachers
5 WHAT?Reader ResponseThe interaction with stories and form personal responses that influence their interpretationsDiscussion-oriented instructionDiscussions supports students as they develop understandingWriting in Response to literatureUse before, during and after reading
6 WHY?“Strong evidence links readers’ awareness of text structure to successful reading comprehension.”Coyne et al., 2007Story elements provide the framework for applying comprehension strategies to narrative text.Dickson et al., 1998Helping students to recognize the structure inherent in text—and match it to their own cognitive structures---will help them understand and produce not only text but also spoken discourse.Williams, 2005
7 WHEN?Comprehension instruction should begin as soon as students start to interact with text and should continue through high school.Duke et al, 2002Effective teaching balances explicit comprehension strategies instruction with the literary experience of a story.
8 WHEN?Comprehension instruction should be accompanied by reliable assessment aligned with instruction.Informal and traditional assessments should be combinedMost traditional assessments are inadequate1. They often confuse comprehension with vocabulary, background knowledge, word reading ability, and other reading skills2. They fail to represent the complexity of comprehension3. They do not distinguish specific processes that underlie comprehension problems
9 WHEN? Comprehension assessment tools Think-aloud protocols make comprehension processes more visibleProcess-focused measure may serve as useful tools for diagnosing and remediating comprehension problems.
10 HOW? Dialogic Reading: Picture Book Read-Aloud Method Teacher become the listener and questionerStudent is the tellerCommonly used with picture booksFosters engagementGive access to books before they can read them independentlyUses CROWD and PEER
11 HOW? Dialogic Reading Prompts (CROWD) Completion Recall Open-minded Who, what, when, where, why questionsDistancing –making a bridge between stories and real world
12 HOW? Interactive Instrumental Sequence (PEER) Helps students become the teller of the storyPEERPrompt –use CROWD prompts, student responds to a storyEvaluate—evaluate student responseExpand—expand by adding info to student responseRepeat—repeat expanded response
13 HOW?Story StructureStudents ask and answer questions about story structureStudents use story maps afterDirect instructionTeacher modeling
14 HOW? Transactional Strategies Instruction (TSI) Emphasizes coordinated use of strategies to help students to build and monitor comprehensionFirst introduce individuallyExplicit instruction neededStrategy choices shifts from teacher to student over time
15 HOW? Book Club Writing in response to literature Provides instruction in three categoriesPersonal responses---relating to story personallyCreative responses---new ideasCritical—analyzing aspects of literary works