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Module 4: Railway Equipment4/16/2017 Module 4: Railway Equipment COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Objectives Recognize various types of rolling stock4/16/2017 Recognize various types of rolling stock Learn about major vehicle systems COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Rolling Stock Locomotives Rail Cars Self-Propelled Rail Cars4/16/2017 Locomotives Rail Cars Passenger Coaches Freight Cars Self-Propelled Rail Cars Mainline Rapid Transit/Light Rail Rail Maintenance Equipment (Module 10) COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Rolling Stock: Locomotives Introduction4/16/2017 Used to haul freight, passenger cars, or other rail equipment Heavy equipment used to haul large loads A number of standard designs exist to handle wide variety of tasks (freight, high speed, yard switching) COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Rolling Stock: Locomotives Basic Types4/16/2017 Diesel Electric DC AC Hybrids Electric Single System Multi-System Other Diesel Mechanical Diesel Hydraulic Electro-Diesel COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Rolling Stock: Rail Cars Passenger Coaches – Introduction4/16/2017 Pulled/pushed by locomotives Vary in capacity according to application Low system complexity A number of standard designs available for different applications COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012 6
Rolling Stock: Rail Cars Passenger Coaches – Basic Types4/16/2017 Types Single Level Double Deck Gallery Custom Service Application Commuter Rail Intercity High Speed Cab Car COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012 7
Rolling Stock: Rail Cars Freight Cars – Introduction4/16/2017 BOX CAR Pulled by locomotives Vary in capacity according to application Typically only equipped with friction brake equipment A number of standard designs available for different applications AUTO RACK CAR COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012 8
Rolling Stock: Rail Cars Freight Cars –Basic Types4/16/2017 HOPPER CAR Box Car Tank Car Hopper Flatbed Gondola Intermodal Specialized (livestock, car carrier, refrigerated, etc.) DOUBLE STACK CONTAINER CAR COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012 9
Rolling Stock: Self-Propelled Rail Cars Mainline – Introduction4/16/2017 Each rail car is fitted with its own propulsion system (Diesel or Electric) Good performance characteristics (acceleration/deceleration/economy) Moderate to high systems complexity Variety of types exist (low speed/short haul to high speed/long haul, single/double deck) COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Rolling Stock: Self Propelled Rail Cars Mainline – Basic Types4/16/2017 Passenger EMU Catenary Third Rail Single/Multi System Passenger DMU Diesel Mechanical Diesel Hydraulic Diesel Electric Hybrid Designs COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Rolling Stock: Self Propelled Rail Cars Rapid Transit/Light Rail – Introduction4/16/2017 Used in urban transit applications (subway, streetcar, metro) on dedicated right of way Lightweight design that is not FRA compliant Moderate to high systems complexity Mostly custom built to fit specific performance/ infrastructure requirements COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Rolling Stock: Self Propelled Rail Cars Rapid Transit/Light Rail – Basic Types4/16/2017 Rapid Transit/Heavy Rail Catenary Third Rail Light Rail/Street Car Hybrid Designs COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems Carshell/Underframe Trucks Friction Brakes4/16/2017 Carshell/Underframe Trucks Friction Brakes Couplers/Drawbars Propulsion Sanding System Other (Passenger Rail) COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Carshell / Underframe Introduction4/16/2017 Structural backbone of railcars/ locomotives Different design approaches used, based on application Design driven by load capacity and safety requirements COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Carshell/Underframe Underframe Construction4/16/2017 Vehicle Systems: Carshell/Underframe Underframe Construction Freight and Passenger Rail Coach Light Rail/Rapid Transit COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Carshell/Underframe Carshell Construction4/16/2017 Vehicle Systems: Carshell/Underframe Carshell Construction Welded Steel Beam Unibody / Extruded Aluminum COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Trucks (Bogies) Introduction4/16/2017 Vehicle Systems: Trucks (Bogies) Introduction Interface between rail and vehicle Different designs types exist, based on application Design driven by load capacity and speed requirements Two main categories are standard trucks and powered trucks COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Trucks & Truck Components4/16/2017 Locomotive / Powered Rail Car Truck Freight / Passenger Coach Rail Car Truck COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Trucks Wheels4/16/2017 Railway wheels today are constructed of either cast or forged steel. The axles are also a forging and are machined to a finish surface to reduce fatigue related stresses from constant reversal of related tensile/compressive loading as the axle revolves. The wheels are force fit onto the axle. COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Trucks Wheel/Rail Interface4/16/2017 Wheel/rail interface is an important parameter for ensuring good vehicle performance Improper matching of wheel and track profiles can cause maintenance and safety issues COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Trucks Wheel/Rail Interface4/16/2017 For freight rail in North America, wheel profiles are defined by the AAR. For transit and light rail, vehicle wheels profile and other parameters must be selected to match the track Proper definition of wear limits and track parameter tolerances are critical COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Friction Brakes Introduction4/16/2017 All types of rail cars are equipped with friction brakes Main categories are tread and disc brakes Typically applied by air. Hydraulic, spring, and electric applied brakes are also used. Control methods include Air, E-P, and ECP COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Friction Brakes Brake Control4/16/2017 Air Brake Control COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Coupler / Drawbar Introduction4/16/2017 Used to join cars together to form a train Designs very greatly based on load and performance requirements Detachable or semi-permanent types are used, depending on requirements NOTE: The coupler shown in the bottom picture is the standard coupler used by the freight railroading industry in North America. STANDARD COUPLER USED BY FREIGHT RR IN NORTH AMERICA COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Propulsion Introduction4/16/2017 Used in locomotives and self-propelled rail cars System consists of motors and controls Propulsion used to accelerate and decelerate rail cars Main types include diesel, diesel-electric, and electric COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Propulsion Diesel/Electric4/16/2017 In a locomotive, or any other type of diesel electric system, the diesel engine turns a generator, which creates electricity The electricity is delivered to electric motors that power each axle Variants include AC, DC, and Hybrid COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Sanding System Introduction4/16/2017 Used in locomotives and self-propelled rail cars System consists of sand boxes and nozzles at the lead end wheels The system pours sand at the wheel/rail interface when required to increase traction for acceleration and braking COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Vehicle Systems: Other Introduction4/16/2017 Passenger rail cars are equipped with a number of systems geared towards passenger comfort and safety Systems include: Doors HVAC Communications Auxiliary Power Train Control COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
Questions? Authors: Marcin Taraszkiewicz, P.E.4/16/2017 Authors: Marcin Taraszkiewicz, P.E. CH2M Hill, Inc. (312) Dallas R. Richards, P.E. Arcadis, inc. (703) COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
REVISION HISTORY 4/16/2017 COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2012
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