Presentation on theme: "ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia A FRAMEWORK FOR CALCULATING THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT OF AIR TRANSPORT Howard Cambridge, Stockholm Environment Institute,"— Presentation transcript:
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia A FRAMEWORK FOR CALCULATING THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT OF AIR TRANSPORT Howard Cambridge, Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York, UK
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Outline Context Ecological Footprint Footprinting Air Transport Calculation Framework Application Potential
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Context Global Growth Demand Drivers Impacts Climate Change Resource Consumption and Waste Levels and Responsibility Boeing, 2002
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Ecological Footprint Wackernagel and Rees (1996) It is a tool to help measure and understand how much bio-productive capacity the earth has and how much of it we use. Activity Based e.g. Tourism, Construction, Services,Transport Bio-Productive Land Cropland and Grazing, Forestry, Fisheries, Energy, Built Land Plus Land to Absorb Pollution
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Ecological Footprint 2 Different Methods Component vs Compound Approach Looks at Bio-productive Area requirements for different activities and sums them up.
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Ecological Footprint Resource Consumption e.g. Fossil Fuels Impact – Ecological Footprint Global Hectares (gha) per year Waste e.g. CO 2 Emissions Whole Economic System
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Ecological Footprint Largest percentage of Global EF from burning of fossil fuels. Followed by utilization of cropland & pasture land. Ecological Footprint of Nations, 2004. Redefining Progress
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Ecological Footprint Western Europe and North America highest EF per capita Regional Inequalities Fair-Earth Share about 1.5 gha Ecological Footprint of Nations, 2004. Redefining Progress
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Footprinting Air Transport 3 Main Sectors 5 Main Components Data Gathering Spreadsheet Software Sources: Airlines, Airports, Passengers
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Components - Transport Aircraft Type Fuel Consumption Distance Engine Efficiency Passenger Mode Distance Car Type Engine Efficiency Other Transport – Baggage Trucks
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Components - Water Water required for cleaning, hygiene Water use in Airport Water on-board aircraft Passenger consumption Leakage/Recycled
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Runways, Offices Hangars, Terminals Transport links Components - Construction Type of Material Source of Material Size of Building
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Calculation Fuel use multiplied by energy conversion factors (co2 equivalents) Higher global warming potential of aviation emissions. Calculate Total (km/tonnes) for each component (i) Transport, Water, Waste, Food, Construction D= Direct Bio-productive land use N= Indirect (fossil fuel) land use i = component
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Calculation Assign to Bio-Productive Area e.g. how much cropland required to supply tonnage of food. Multiply each area by equivalence factors -in order to make comparisons between areas of different productivity i.e. comparing crop land to forest areas are 'normalized' by multiplying them by equivalence factors relating to their bio- productivity.
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Calculation Global Hectares /Year EF Expressed as: Global Hectares /Passenger /Year EF for each Component EF comp= (EF arable + EF pasture + EF built + EF forests + EF fisheries + EF fossil/energy ) comp Total EF=Sum all Bio-Productive Areas EF total = EF arable + EF pasture + EF built + EF forests + EF fisheries + EF fossil/energy
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Application Set Policies which reduce fuel consumption - improve airline profit margins -environmental benefits -reach emission reduction targets Assessment tool for future airport expansion - assess total impact -model different scenarios -communication tool
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Conclusion Air transport comprises many different activities carried out by different industries and consumers. Air travel is forecast to increase annually for the next 50 years. This means increasing resource consumption and more waste produced. This includes greenhouse gas emissions a significant factor in climate change. Therefore, concerns about environmental issues and sustainable development need to be assessed and addressed.
ICRAT, 2004, Zilina, Slovakia Conclusion The EF provides a method for the total impact of air transport to be assessed. This type of assessment takes into account all activities not just the flight segment. The EF can be used as a communication and aware - ness tool to inform passengers about the impact they make. It can leads to shifts to public transport for airport access. The EF can be used by airports and airlines to identify operations where energy efficiency measures can be made and where resource consumption can be reduced.