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Ms. Kehoe 9th Grade Health

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1 Ms. Kehoe 9th Grade Health
Breast Anatomy Ms. Kehoe 9th Grade Health

2 Breast The structure of the female breast is complex — including fat and connective tissue, as well as lobes, lobules, ducts and lymph nodes Glandular tissues: Lobules produce milk and Ducts are small passages connected to the nipples Nipples: have tiny openings connected to the ducts that release milk in breast feeding women. Supporting tissues is made up of fatty tissue and ligaments. They surround the lobes ducts and blood vessels. Lymph vessels are connected to lymph nodes under the arms that help fight infections. Breasts may grow at different rates and be different sizes. Changes in the breast are not always a sign of a serious problem and most women experience some changes in their breasts during their lives.

3 A. ducts B. lobules C. dilated section of duct to hold milk D. nipple E. fat F. pectoral's major muscle G. chest wall/rib cage Enlargement: A. normal duct cells B. basement membrane C. lumen (center of duct)

4 Female Exam:

5 Step 1: Self-Breast Exam
Begin by looking at your breasts in the mirror with your shoulders straight and your arms on your hips. Here's what you should look for: breasts that are their usual size, shape, and color. breasts that are evenly shaped without visible distortion or swelling. If you see any of the following changes, bring them to your doctor's attention: nipple discharge dimpling, puckering, or bulging of the skin. a nipple that has changed position or an inverted nipple (pushed inward instead of sticking out). redness, soreness, rash, or swelling.

6 Step 2 and 3: Self- Breast Exam
raise your arms and look for the same changes While you're at the mirror, gently squeeze each nipple between your finger and thumb and check for nipple discharge (this could be a milky or yellow fluid or blood).

7 Step 4: Self- Breast Exam
Feel your breasts while lying down, using your right hand to feel your left breast and then your left hand to feel your right breast. Use a firm, smooth touch with the first few fingers of your hand, keeping the fingers flat and together. Cover the entire breast from top to bottom, side to side—from your collarbone to the top of your abdomen, and from your armpit to your cleavage. Follow a pattern to be sure that you cover the whole breast. You can begin at the nipple, moving in larger and larger circles until you reach the outer edge of the breast. You can also move your fingers up and down vertically, in rows, as if you were mowing a lawn. Be sure to feel all the breast tissue: just beneath your skin with a soft touch and down deeper with a firmer touch. Begin examining each area with a very soft touch, and then increase pressure so that you can feel the deeper tissue, down to your ribcage.

8 Step 5: Self- Breast Exam
Finally, feel your breasts while you are standing or sitting. Many women find that the easiest way to feel their breasts is when their skin is wet and slippery, so they like to do this step in the shower. Cover your entire breast, using the same hand movements described in Step 4.

9 Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the second most common form of cancer in females. No one knows what causes breast cancer, so there is little to prevent it. Over 175,000 women and 1,500 men. Diagnosis: Self examination, mammography (40) – X-ray of the breast, clinical breast exam – doctor, ultrasonography, fine needle aspiration biopsy, core biopsy (larger needle) surgical biopsy Uncontrollable Factors: 50 years old or older (80% of the cancers in this age group), having had breast cancer, radiation, family history, early menstruation - before 12 or late menopause - 55. Controllable Factors: overweight, alcohol abuse, estrogen replacement therapy, lack of exercise.

10 Signs of Breast Cancer:
Lump in the breast or armpit Puckering of the skin Unusual change in size or shape or one breast Unusual swelling of the upper arm Enlargement of the lymph nodes Change in the skin of the nipple Dimpling of the skin in the breast or nipple Unusual discharge from the nipple Accentuated veins on the surface of the breast.

11 Facts: One in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Each year it is estimated that over 220,000 women in the United States will be diagnosed with breast cancer and more than 40,000 will die. Although breast cancer in men is rare, an estimated 2,150 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer and approximately 410 will die each year Male breast cancer occurs when malignant cells form in the tissues of the breast Men have breast tissue that develops in the same way as breast tissue in women, and is susceptible to cancer cells in the same way

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