Presentation on theme: "Figure 12.3 Distribution of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes."— Presentation transcript:
1 Figure 12.3 Distribution of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. Entrance of rightlymphatic duct into rightsubclavian veinRegionallymph nodes:CervicalnodesInternal jugular veinThoracic ductentry into leftsubclavian veinAxillarynodesThoracic ductAortaSpleenCisterna chyli (receiveslymph drainage fromdigestive organs)InguinalnodesLymphaticsKEY:Drained by the right lymphatic ductDrained by the thoracic duct
2 Figure 12.1 Relationship of lymphatic vessels to blood vessels. VenoussystemArterialsystemHeartLymph ductLymph trunkLymph nodeLymphaticsystemLymphaticcollectingvessels,with valvesLymphcapillaryTissue fluid(becomeslymph)Loose connectivetissue aroundcapillariesBloodcapillaries
3 Figure 12.2a Special structural features of lymphatic capillaries. Tissue fluidTissue cellLymphaticcapillaryBloodcapillariesArterioleVenule(a)
4 Figure 12.2b Special structural features of lymphatic capillaries. Fibroblast in looseconnective tissueFlaplikeminivalveFilamentsanchored toconnectivetissueEndothelialcell(b)
5 Figure 12.4 Structure of a lymph node. Germinalcenter infollicleCapsuleAfferentlymphaticvesselsSubcapsularsinusTrabeculaAfferentlymphaticvesselsEfferentlymphaticvesselsHilumCortexMedullary sinusFollicleMedullary cord
6 Figure 12.5 Lymphoid organs. Tonsils (inpharyngeal region)Thymus (in thorax;most active duringyouth)Spleen (curvesaround left side ofstomach)Peyer’s patches(in intestine)Appendix
7 Figure 12.6 An overview of the body’s defenses. The Immune SystemInnate (nonspecific) defense mechanismsAdaptive (specific) defensemechanismsFirst line of defenseSecond line of defenseThird line of defense• Skin• Mucous membranes• Secretions of skinand mucousmembranes• Phagocytic cells• Natural killer cells• Antimicrobial proteins• The inflammatoryresponse• Lymphocytes• Antibodies• Macrophages and otherantigen-presenting cells
8 Table 12.1 Summary of Innate (Nonspecific) Body Defenses (2 of 3).
9 Figure 12.7 Flowchart of inflammatory events. Injurious agentsCells damagedRelease kinins, histamine,and other chemicalsBlood vesselsdilateCapillariesbecome “leaky”Neutrophils andthen monocytes(and other WBCs)enter areaIncreased bloodflow into areaEdema (fluid intissue spaces)Clottingproteinsenter areaRemoval ofdamaged/deadtissue cells andpathogensfrom areaRednessHeatPainSwellingBrings morenutrients andoxygen to areaFibrinbarrierIncreasesmetabolicrate oftissue cellsPossibletemporarylimitation ofjoint movementHealing
10 Figure 12.8 Phagocyte mobilization. 3PositivechemotaxisInflammatorychemicals diffusingfrom the inflamedsite act as chemotacticagentsNeutrophils1Enter blood from bone marrowand roll along the vessel wall2DiapedesisEndotheliumCapillary wallBasement membrane
12 Figure 12.9a Phagocytosis by a macrophage. A macrophage (purple) uses itscytoplasmic extensions to pullspherical bacteria (green) toward it.Scanning electron micrograph (10,800×).
13 Figure 12.11 Lymphocyte differentiation and activation. Redbone marrowKEY:Red bone marrow: site of lymphocyte originPrimary lymphoid organs: sites of developmentof immunocompetence as B or T cellsSecondary lymphoid organs: sites of antigenencounter, and activation to become effectorand memory B or T cellsImmature (naive)lymphocytes1Lymphocytes destined to become T cellsmigrate (in blood) to the thymus and developimmunocompetence there. B cells developimmunocompetence in red bone marrow.ThymusBone marrow2Immunocompetent but still naivelymphocytes leave the thymus and bonemarrow. They “seed” the lymph nodes,spleen, and other lymphoid tissues, wherethey encounter their antigen and becomeactivated.Lymph nodes,spleen, and otherlymphoid tissues3Antigen-activated (mature)immunocompetent lymphocytes (effectorcells and memory cells) circulatecontinuously in the bloodstream andlymph and throughout the lymphoidorgans of the body.
14 Figure 12.13 Primary and secondary humoral responses to an antigen. Relative antibody concentrationin blood plasmaPrimaryresponse123456Time (weeks)AntigeninjectedAntigeninjected
15 Figure 12.14 Types of acquired immunity. NaturallyacquiredArtificiallyacquiredActivePassiveActivePassiveInfection;contactwithpathogenAntibodiespass frommother tofetus viaplacentaor to infantin her milkVaccine;dead orattenuatedpathogensInjectionof immuneserum(gammaglobulin)
16 Cytotoxic (killer) T cell B cell Figure T cell activation and interactions with other cells of the immune response.Antigen“Presented”antigenCytotoxic(killer)T cellCell-mediatedimmunity(attack oninfected cells)T cell antigenreceptorDendriticcellHelperT cellCytokinesHumoralimmunity(secretion ofantibodies byplasma cells)Self-proteinAntigenprocessingB cellCytokines
17 Table 12.3 Functions of Cells and Molecules Involved in Immunity (1 of 4).
18 Table 12.3 Functions of Cells and Molecules Involved in Immunity (2 of 4).
19 Table 12.3 Functions of Cells and Molecules Involved in Immunity (3 of 4).
20 Table 12.3 Functions of Cells and Molecules Involved in Immunity (4 of 4).
21 A Closer Look 12.1 A new HIV virus emerges from an infected human cell. 34