Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 The Lymphatic System"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 12 The Lymphatic System THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEMChapter 12 The Lymphatic SystemMain Collecting Lymphatic ChannelsLymphatic Drainage of the Head and NeckLymphatic Drainage of the Upper LimbLymphatic Drainage of the ThoraxLymphatic Drainage of the Lower LimbLymphatic Drainage of the Abdomen and pelvis
2 general introductionThe lymphatic system consists of lymphatic vessels and various lymphatic tissues and organs
3 The lymphatic vessels and the sinuses of the lymph nodes contain tissue fluid，which is called lymph. lymphatic capillarytissue fluidhistiocyteblood capillary（vein）blood capillary（artery）
4 The composition and construction features of lymphatic system lymphatic vessellymphatic capillary:the initiation is dead end, the endothelium is thin and intercellular spaces are wide 。histiocyteendothelial cellThe lymphatic capillaries do not present in epithelium , cornea, lens, cartilage, brain and spinal cord
5 lymphatic vesselsuperficial lymphatic vessel (located in superficial fascia)The stems go in company with cutaneous veindeep lymphatic vessel (located in deep fascia)The stems go in company with deep veinthere are affluent communications between the superficial and deep lymphatic vessels
7 lymphatic ductThe lymphatic capillaries join to form progressively larger vessels, until finally the thoracic duct and the right lymphatic ductthe thoracic duct return to left venous angle, and the right lymphatic duct return to right venous angle,a few lymphatic vessels return to renal vein、superarenal vein and inferior vena cava.
8 lymphatic tissuesdiffuse lymphoid tissueThey main located in the lamina propria mucosae of digestive tract and respiratory tract.lymphatic nodulethey include the solitary and aggregated lymphatic follicles which present in the submucosa of the small intestine , and lymphatic nodules which present inthe wall of vermiform appendix.
9 lymphatic organThe lymphatic organs include the lymph nodes, tonsils , thymus and spleen.lymph nodeafferent lymphatic vesselefferent lymphatic vesselsuperficial lymph nodedeep lymph nodehilum of lymph node
10 lymphatic duct thoracic duct thoracic duct cisterna chyli left venous angleleft jugular trunk ：converying lymph from the left side of the head and neckthoracicductleft subclavian trunk ：draining lymph from the left upper limb and part of the thorax on the left sideleft bronchomediastinal trunk ： draining lymph from Left thoracic cavityintestinal trunk, ：draining most of the lymph from the abdominal part of the alimentary canal, liver, pancreas and spleencisterna chylileft and right 1umbar trunks ：conveying lymph from the lower limbs and the pelvic viscera
11 right lymphatic duct right venous angle right jugular trunk ： receive lymph from the rightSide of head and neckright lymphatic ductright subclavian trunk ：receive lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the thoraxright bronchomediastinal trunk
12 position of lymph node and lymphatic drainage lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes of the head and neckLymph node of the headoccipital lymph nodemastoid lymph nodeParotid lymph nodesubmandibular lymph nodesubmental lymph node
17 lymphatic vessles and lymph nodes of thorax lymph nodes of chest wallparasternal lymph nodeintercostal lymph nodesuperior phrenic lymph node
18 lymph nodes of the organs located in thoracic cavity anterior mediastinal lymph nodes,posterior mediastinal lymph nodeslymph nodes of trchea ,bronchi and lungpulmonary lymph nodesbronchopulmonary lymph node（pulmonary hilar lymph node）tracheobronchial lymph nodeparatracheal lymph node
19 lymphatic vessles and lymph nodes of lower limb popliteal lymph nodeinguinal lymph nodesuperficial inguinal lymph nodedeep inguinal lymph node
20 lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes of the pelvis sacral lymph nodeinternal iliac lymph nodeexternal iliac lymph nodecommon iliac lymph node
21 lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes of abdomen lymph node of the abdominal walllumbar lymph nodeLeft side diaphragm truckRight side liver truck
22 lymph nodes of organs located in abdominal cavity Lymph nodes accompany celiac truck and its branchesleft and right gastric lymph nodesleft and right gastroomental lymph nodespyloric lymph nodeshepatic lymph nodespancreatic lymph nodessplenic lymph nodes→celiac lymph node
24 Lymphatic Drainage of some organs lymphatic drainage of the lungSuperficial lymphatic vessels of the lung are located in the deep face of the visceral pleuraDeep lymphatic vessels of the lung flow to the pulmonary lymph nodes and the bronchopulmonary lymph nodesCommunication present between the superficial and deep lymphatic vessels。pulmonary lymph node →bronchopulmonary lymph nodes →tracheobronchial lymph node and paratracheal lymph nodelymphatic vessels from the lower lobe flow to the lymph nodes which located in pulmonary ligamentLymphatic vessels from the lower part of the superior lobe of the left lung and some lymphatic vessels from the lower lobe →upper group of the right tracheobronchial lymph node and right paratracheal lymph node
25 Lymphatic Drainage of the esophagus Lymph of cervical part esophagus→paratracheal lymph node and inferior deep lateral cervical lymph node。Lymph of thoracic part esophagus→posterior mediastinal lymph node，lymph of the superior segment of thoracic part→paratracheal lymph nodes and tracheobronchial lymph nodelymph of the inferior segment of thoracic part →left gastric lymph nodelymphatic vessels of epicardia→left gastric lymph nodeA few of lymphatic vessels of esophagus→thoracic duct
26 Lymphatic Drainage of the rectum The lymphatic vessels of the anal canal above the dentate line ：accompany the superior rectal artery ,then ascending to enter the superior rectal lymph nodes ；accompany the inferior rectal aryery,then enter the internal iliac lymph nodesaccompany the anal artery and then follow the pudental artery to enter the internal iliac lymph nodes,part of lymphatic vessles follow theVessles of sacro-lateral ， then enter the sacral lymph nodes.The lymphatic vessels of the anal canal under thedentate line enter the superficial inguinal lymph nodes.
27 Lymphatic drainage of the uterus lymphatic vessels located in the superior aspect of fundus of uterus and body of uterus: follow the ovarian blood vessels and ascend to terminate mainly in the lumbar lymph nodes.accompany the round ligament , pass the inguinal canal，and reach the superficial inguinal lymph nodes.lymphatic vessels located in inferior part of the uterus and cervical of the uterus：follow blood vessels of the uterus and reach the external and internal iliac lymph nodes ;Pass cardinal ligament of uterus and reach the obturator lymph nodes ；follow the sacrouterine ligament , go backward and reach the sacral lymph nodes.
28 Lymphatic drainage of the breast The lymph of the breast mainly reach the axillary lymph nodeslymphatic vessels located in lateral and central part of the breast reach the pectoral lymph nodes；superior lymphatic vessels reach apical lymph nodes and supraclavicular lymph nodes;medial part lymphatic vessels reach parasternal lymph nodes.
29 the spleenThe spleen is the largest lymphatic organ. It functions in storing blood, haematogenesis, disposing effete red cells and immunologic response.the spleen lies deep to the left ninth, tenth and eleventh ribshilum of spleensplenic arterysplenic veinsplenic notches