6 Formation of a solution Water molecules separate the and the from the ionic crystal.Once separated, the cations get surrounded by the end of the water molecules, and the anions are surrounded by the end of the water molecules.
7 Formation of SolutionThe interaction between solute and solvent particles is called solvation.If water is the solvent, the interaction is hydration.Separation of solute particles & solvent particles –Attraction of solvent particles – exothermicThe overall energy change that occurs during solution formation is called the
8 Factors Affecting Solvation The rate at which a solid solute dissolves in a solution depends of 3 factors:
9 Stirring: Stirring a solute up the solution process. Surface Area:Surface Area ↑,Ex: sugar dissolves faster than cubed sugar.Stirring: Stirring a solute up the solution process.Temperature: the temperature of a solvent increases the at which the solute dissolves.
10 SolubilityThe amount of that will dissolve in a specific solvent under given conditions.Whether or not a solute will dissolves in a solvent and the extent to which it dissolves depends onSolubility depends on the nature of the
11 Solubility - Saturation are solutions that contain less dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution.contain the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solute at a specific temperature and pressure.
12 A contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature. To form a solution, a saturated solution is formed at high temperature and then slowly cooled.Supersaturated solutions are
14 Nature of solute and solvent Polar solutes dissolve inExample: water and salt (or any ionic compd.)Nonpolar solutes dissolve inExample: grease and turpentine, cholesterol and fat
15 Temperature Gases in liquids Solids in liquids Temperature , solubility of a gasSolids in liquidsTemperature , solubility of a solid
16 Pressure Pressure does affect solids and liquids. Gas in liquid: Pressure of solvent , solubility of a gasHenry’s law states that at a given temperature, the solubility (S) of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure (P).