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CS447/547 10- 1 Realistic Rendering -- Solids Modeling -- Introduction to 2D and 3D Computer Graphics

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CS447/547 10- 2 Solid objects can be defined... –...by sweeping an object along a trajectory through space –...this process is called extrusion Extrusion... –...is a natural way to represent objects made of extruding metal or plastics with cross-sections visible –...can be performed using translational sweeps or rotational sweeps Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 3 Translational sweeps... –...are a simple sweep defined by a 2D area swept along a linear path normal to the plan of the area, creating a volume Rotational sweeps... –...are defined by rotating around a 2D area about an axis Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 4 Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling 2D areaTranslation sweep Rotational sweep

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CS447/547 10- 5 Quadric surfaces... –...are defined by quadratic equations in two- dimensional space –...for example, can be spheres and cones –...are also called surfaces of revolution, since a finite curve in two dimensions is swept in three- dimensional space about one axis to create the surface Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 6 Quadric surfaces... –...where a circle centered on the origin forms a sphere, otherwise it forms a torus –...where a line with one end on the axis of rotation forms a cone, a line parallel to the axis of rotation forms a cylinder RenderMan™ always uses the z axis as the axis of rotation, with a sweep angle... –...sweeping a quadric by less then 360 degrees leaves an open surface Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 7 Example quadric surfaces... Cone Sphere Cylinder Torus Disk Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 8 To make a realistic image... –...objects must be able to be combined One of the most popular ways for combining objects... –...is with Boolean set operators –...using union, difference, and intersection Boolean set operators are 3D equivalents of simple 2D Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 9 Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Two intersecting cubes Union operation Intersection operation Difference operation: Bottom-Top Difference operation: Top-Bottom

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CS447/547 10- 10 Using ordinary Boolean set operators, not all intersections form solid objects... –...they may instead form a plane, a line... Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Two intersecting cubes producing a plane Two intersecting cubes producing a solid Two intersecting cubes producing a line

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CS447/547 10- 11 Or...they may instead form a point or be null Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Two intersecting cubes producing a point Two cubes producing a null set

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CS447/547 10- 12 Using regularized Boolean set operators, only solid objects or null sets are formed... –...let's look at the same set of examples using regularized operators: Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Two intersecting cubes producing a null set Two intersecting cubes producing a solid Two intersecting cubes producing a null set

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CS447/547 10- 13 Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Two intersecting cubes again producing a null set Two cubes producing a null set

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CS447/547 10- 14 Solid objects created with sweeps can be manipulated using Boolean set operations... –...by first converting the objects into boundary representations, spatial-partitioning representations, or constructive solid geometry Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Two simple sweeps of 2D objects (triangles) How these objects would look when overlapping The result of a union operation; it can no longer be thought of as a simple sweep

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CS447/547 10- 15 Boundary representations... –...are called b-reps –...describe objects in terms of their surface boundaries: vertices, edges, and faces –...are generally restricted to be planar, with polygonal boundaries and convex faces –...are generally restricted to be 2-manifolds: this means that support is not provided when there are more than 2 faces sharing an edge and neighboring points on each of the faces are not continuous Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 16 Boundary representations... Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Face Notice in this case, there is an edge that has neighboring points from 4 faces that does not create a topological disk Edge Vertex This object has boundaries that are 2-manifold: each point on a face has a neighborhood of surrounding points that is a topological disk

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CS447/547 10- 17 Boundary representations of simple polyhedra... –are described by Euler's formula –...are solids bounded by a set of polygons, but can be deformed into a sphere and has no holes –...follow the rules: Vertices-Edges+Faces=2 Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 18 To guarantee that a solid volume is created... –...each edge must connect to two vertices and be shared by exactly two faces, –...at least three edges must meet at each vertex, and –...faces must not interpenetrate one another Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling 5 Faces 9 Edges 6 Vertice Example simply polyhedra where V-E+F=2 8 Faces 14 Edges 8 Vertice 6 Faces 12 Edges 8 Vertice

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CS447/547 10- 19 Boundary representations of polyhedra with holes... –...are described by a generalization of Euler's formul –... Vertices-Edges+Faces-Holes=2(Separateparts-Genus) –...where Holes describes the # of holes in the faces –...where Genus describes the # of holes that pass through the object –...where Separate parts describe the # of separate components in the object Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 20 Boundary representations of polyhedra with holes... Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling 15 Faces 36 Edges 24 Vertice 3 Holes (1 of them is in the bottom face) 1 Separate Parts 1 Genus A polyhedron with a hole passing through the object

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CS447/547 10- 21 Spatial-partitioning representations... –...describe objects as collections of adjoining nonintersecting solids Spatial-partitioning creates collections of solids that... –...may or may not be the same type as the original object –...are like building blocks –...can vary in type, size, position, parameterization, and orientation Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 22 Solid objects can be formed with spatial- partitioning using... –...cell decomposition –...spatial-occupancy enumeration –...octrees and quadtrees, etc. Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 23 Cell decomposition... –....is a popular form of spatial-partitioning –...composes complex objects from simple primitives in a bottom-up fashion by gluing them together! (like a union but without objects intersecting) –...composes objects from cells, where any two cells must share a single point, edge, or face Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 24 Cell decomposition... Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Three simple primitives: called cells Keep in mind with this method, that the complex object can be created using cells in more than one way...

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CS447/547 10- 25 Spatial-occupancy enumeration... –...is a special case of cell decomposition –...defines objects using identical cells arrayed in a fixed and regular grid (called voxels) –...most commonly uses a cube cell type –...only controls whether or not a cell is present or absent in every cell in a grid –...no other controls are defined –...creates unique and unambiguous list of occupied cells Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 26 Spatial-occupancy enumeration... Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 27 Octrees... –...are a hierarchical way to use voxels –...are designed to reduce the storage requirements of the spatial-occupancy enumeration approach –...are derived from 2D quadtrees...and expanded to 3D Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 28 Quadtrees... –...successively subdivide a 2D plane in both dimensions –...where each quadrant is full, partly full, or empty depending on how much of the complex object intersects the area –...where partly full quadrants are recursively subdivided –...and subdivision continues until all cells are full or empty Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 29 Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Quadtrees... Cells (voxels) using spatial-occupancy enumeration Cells using quadtrees

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CS447/547 10- 30 Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling 0 1 3 2 0 Empty Full Empty Full Empty For example... 0 0 1 1 3 3 2 0 1 3 2 0 12 3

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CS447/547 10- 31 Octrees... –...are three dimensional quadtrees –...its three dimensions are recursively subdivided into octants –...have quadrants: Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 32 Octrees... The number of nodes in a quadtree or octree is proportional to the object's perimeter or surface, respectively –...this is because subdivision occurs only from the need to represent an object's boundary –...therefore, subdivision only occurs in those quadrants where a boundary passes Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 33 Boolean set operators can also apply to both quadtrees and octrees... –...by traversing the two trees in parallel Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Object #1 Object #2 Union operation Intersection operation

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CS447/547 10- 34 Constructive solid geometry (CSG)... –...describes objects in terms of regularized Boolean set operators (as part of their representation) –...stores objects in a tree with operators at the internal nodes and simple primitives at the leaves –...allows nodes to represent Boolean operators, translation, rotation, or scaling Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 35 Some implementations limit the primitives to be simple solids -- like cubes or spheres... –...other implementations allow objects that aren't even completely bounded volumes! These are useful for slicing an object by a plane CSG does not provide unique representation...... –and therefore can be confusing for systems that allow "leaf" editing (for adding, deleting, replacing, and modifying subtrees) Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling

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CS447/547 10- 36 Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling Union Union, Rotate Translate Union, Rotate Translate A CSG example:

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CS447/547 10- 37 Accuracy... –...is best achieved by CSG that allows for curved surfaces –...is only approximated using spatial-partitioning and polygonal b-rep methods The variety of objects represented... –...is best achieved using spatial-partitioning since they can represent any solid (even if it is an approximation) Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling: summary

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CS447/547 10- 38 The variety of objects represented... –...can also be achieved using b-reps, if they provide faces and edges in addition to polygons bounded by straight lines –...is limited using sweeps Uniqueness... –...can be guaranteed only using octree and spatial- occupancy enumeration methods Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling: summary

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CS447/547 10- 39 Compactness and efficiency... –...are best achieved using CSG, since it is compact and able to record Boolean operations and transformations quickly Building Realistic... Objects using solid modeling: summary

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