Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 – Canada Section Notes Video Maps Close-up World Almanac"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 12 – Canada Section Notes Video Maps Close-up World Almanac Physical GeographyHistory and CultureCanada TodayImpact of RegionalismMapsCanada: PoliticalCanada: PhysicalCanada’s Major LanguagesRegions of CanadaCanadaClimate of British ColumbiaClose-upQuebec’s Winter CarnivalWorld AlmanacCanadian Ethnic GroupsImagesGeographyBanff National ParkFocus on Culture: Vancouver’s ChinatownTrade with the United StatesQuick FactsChapter 12 Visual Summary
2 Physical Geography The Big Idea Canada is a huge country with a northerly location, cold climates, and rich resources.Main IdeasA huge country, Canada has a wide variety of physical features, including rugged mountains, plains, and swamps.Because of its northerly location, Canada is dominated by cold climates.Canada is rich in natural resources like fish, minerals, fertile soil, and forests.
3 Main Idea 1: A huge country, Canada has a wide variety of physical features, including rugged mountains, plains, and swamps.Canada and the U.S. share many physical features.The mountains along the Pacific coast and the Rocky Mountains extend north into western Canada.Broad plains stretch across the interiors of both countries.Both countries border the St. Lawrence River, which links the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.The Niagara Falls, located between Ontario and New York State, plunge an average of 162 feet between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.
4 Canada’s Physical Features Canada is the second-largest country in the world.Canada has a region of rocky uplands, lakes, and swamps called the Canadian Shield, which covers about half the country.Canadian land bordering the Arctic Ocean is covered with ice year-round. Very few people live here, but some wildlife have adapted to the harsh environment.
5 Main Idea 2: Because of its northerly location, Canada is dominated by cold climates. Canada’s location greatly influences the country’s climate.Located far from the equatorCool to freezing temperatures year-roundThe farther north, the colder the climate.Much of central and northern Canada has a sub-arctic climate.The far north has tundra and ice cap climates.About half of Canada lies in these extremely cold climates.Central and eastern southern Canada is humid and relatively mild.The coast of British Columbia is the mildest. The Pacific coast brings rainy winters and mild temperatures.Inland southern Canada is colder and drier.
6 Main Idea 3: Canada is rich in natural resources like fish, minerals, fertile soil, and forests. FishingCanada’s Atlantic and Pacific coastal waters are among the world’s richest fishing areas.Grand BanksOff the Atlantic coastCold waters from the Labrador Sea meet the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.Ideal for the growth of tiny organisms, or planktonLarge schools of fish gather to eat the plankton.Recent over-fishing
7 Canadian Resources Minerals Forest The Canadian Shield has many mineral deposits.World’s main source of nickel, zinc, and uraniumOther resources: lead, copper, gold, and silverSaskatchewan: potash, a mineral used to make fertilizerAlberta: oil and natural gasForestVast areas of forests from Labrador to the Pacific coast provide lumber and pulp.Pulp—softened wood fibers—is used to make paper.The United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan get much of their newsprint from Canada.Newsprint is cheap paper used mainly for newspapers.
8 History and Culture The Big Idea Canada’s history and culture reflect Native Canadian and European settlement, immigration, and migration to cities.Main IdeasBeginning in the 1600s, Europeans settled the region that would later become Canada.Immigration and migration to cities have shaped Canadian culture.
9 Main Idea 1: Beginning in the 1600s, Europeans settled the region that would later become Canada. The First Nations:The Cree hunted bison on the Interior plains.The Inuit hunted seals, whales, and walruses in the far north.Today, Canada has about 400,000 Indians and Inuit.NativeCanadiansVikings settled on Newfoundland in AD 1000, but abandoned settlements.1400s: Other European settlers arrived.Europeans traded metal goods like axes and guns for furs that Native Canadians supplied.EuropeanSettlers
10 New France 1608: The French established Quebec City. At its height, New France included much of eastern Canada and central United States.New France was part of the French Empire.To defend New France against the British, the French established good trade and diplomatic relations with Native Canadians.French missionaries also converted people to Christianity.After 150 years, the British defeated the French, but the cultural legacy remained.
11 British Conquest British Conquest Mid-1700s: The British took control of New France after winning the French and Indian War.Most French stayed.The British divided Quebec into two colonies and established part of the border between today’s provinces of Quebec and Ontario.Provinces are administrative divisions of a country.Few English-speaking settlers came to Quebec.Nova Scotia was divided.The new British colony of New Brunswick was created.Creation of CanadaEach colony developed separately at first.1867: Parliament created the Dominion of Canada.1885: The transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway was built to connect British Columbia, on the Pacific Coast, with provinces in the east.Canada acquired new lands in the north, mainly by buying them from the Hudson’s Bay Company, a fur-trading business.Canada also signed treaties with Native Canadians.
12 Main Idea 2: Immigration and migration to cities have shaped Canadian culture. Late 1800s/early 1900s: Immigrants arrived from Europe and the U.S. to farm and work in mines, factories, and forests.1897: Discovery of gold in the Yukon Territory lured more immigrants.Chinese immigrants came to work on the railroad.Early 1900s: Economic boomQuebec, New Brunswick, and Ontario produced wheat, pulp, and paper.British Columbia and Ontario supplied minerals and hydroelectricity.1940s: Canada enjoyed one of the highest standards of living in the world.Immigration
13 Migration Movement To Cities After WWII: New immigration from Europe Many settled in cities.Toronto became one of the most culturally diverse cities in the world with people from Europe, Africa, the Caribbean, Latin American, and Asia.Recently, Canadians have movedTo cities in Ontario to find jobsTo Vancouver, British Columbia for jobs and climatePolitical and economic centers are Ottawa, Toronto, and Montreal.MovementToCities
14 Canada Today The Big Idea Canada’s democratic government oversees the country’s regions and economy.Main IdeasCanada has a democratic government with a prime minister and a parliament.Canada has four distinct geographic and cultural regions.Canada’s economy is largely based on trade with the United States.
15 Main Idea 1: Canada has a democratic government with a prime minister and a parliament. Democratic government led by a prime minister who oversees the parliament.Parliament: House of Commons and the SenatePeople elect members of the House of Commons.Prime minister appoints members of the Senate.Ten provincial governments are led by premiers.Provincial and central system is similar to U.S. state and federal system.
16 Main Idea 2: Canada has four distinct geographic and cultural regions. Canada’s physical geography splits the country into regions.Cultural differences between French-speaking and English-speaking Canadians also leads to regionalism.In Canada, most people speak English.In Quebec, most people speak French.Regionalism is the strong connection that people feel toward the region in which they live.Some Canadians have a stronger connection to their region than to the country as a whole.
17 Canada’s Regions The Eastern Provinces Includes Newfoundland, Labrador, and the Maritime ProvincesMaritime means on or near the sea.Short growing season, so economy relies mostly on forestry and fishingBoth English and French-speaking peopleMost people live in coastal cities.Cities are industrial, fishing, and shipping centers.Halifax, in Nova Scotia, is the region’s largest city.The HeartlandIncludes Quebec and OntarioMost urbanized regionFrench-speaking Montreal in Quebec is Canada’s second largest city.Many residents of Quebec, or Quebecois, argue that Quebec should be independent or be given special privileges.Ontario has a larger population than Quebec and is the manufacturing center.Toronto, the capital of Ontario, is an industrial, financial, educational, and cultural center.Ottawa, the capital of Canada, is in Ontario.
18 Canada’s Regions, continued The Western ProvincesIncludes the prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta and British ColumbiaMore people live in Quebec than in all the prairie provinces.Wheat, oil, and natural gas production are important industries.British ColumbiaFour million peopleResources: forests, salmon, and mineralsVancouver is a coastal city that trades with Asia.The Canadian NorthIncludes Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories, and NunavutExtremely cold due to location near Arctic CircleOnly 100,000 people although this region covers more than a third of Canada.Nunavut is a new territory for the 30,000 native Inuit people who live there.Mostly forest, tundra, and towns isolated by frozen waters of the Arctic Ocean.
19 Main Idea 3: Canada’s economy is largely based on trade with the United States. One of world’s leading mineral producers: titanium, zinc, iron ore, gold, and coalIron and steel industry supports plane, car, and household appliance manufacturing industries.Tourism is a fast-growing service industry.IndustriesCanada’s economy depends on trade.Canada and the U.S. have the world’s largest trading relationship.60 percent of Canada’s imports are from the United States.85 percent of Canada’s exports goes to the United StatesRecent issues include a tariff on Canadian lumber and a 2003 case of mad cow disease.Trade