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Lecture 11: Institutions in Canada: Federalism, Regionalism and Parties SOSC 152.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 11: Institutions in Canada: Federalism, Regionalism and Parties SOSC 152."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 11: Institutions in Canada: Federalism, Regionalism and Parties
SOSC 152

2 Key factor in Canadian Political Institutions is Federal Nature of the Government Federal Nature of the Government Ebbs and Flows of Provincial versus Federal Power Quebec Threat of Secession major challenge to Canada's future also other regional threats Federal/Provincial split major battle line over revenues, taxes, human capital, resource extraction Determines structure of parties and limited role of national parties makes Federal-Provincial conferences, not Parliament, the key locus of major decisions

3 The Evolution of Canadian Federalism (1867-1993)

4 Ebbs and Flows of Provincial versus Federal Power
Four Eras of Federal/Provincial Relations a. Centralized Era of National Policy BNA Act vague on division of authority, courts decide locus of authority despite desire for unitary government, Quebec and Maritimes needed protection to persuade them to join. provinces got control of education (language and religion), welfare, hospitals, taxes from resources or land. central government: trade, commerce, foreign affairs, defense, criminal law and "emergency powers" of peace, government and order" joint control over immigration and agriculture taxes for on-shore resources to provinces, off-shore resources unclear federal government negated provincial laws (112 times before 1943) federal subsidies to provinces, 58% in 1874, 8% in 1929

5 b. Provincial Powers: 1895-World War 1
Judicial Committee of Privy Council of England interpreted BNA Act in favour of provincial rights prevented federal government from establishing minimum wage and social insurance scheme during Depression c. Centralization Period After Depression, 1930s to 1960 important role of Keynesian economics and expansion of social services for provinces that had not funds to meet popular demands Rowell-Sirois Commission (1937) called on feds to increase "transfer" or "equalization payments" Feds use "conditional grants" to set provincial investment agendas 1949, establishment of Canadian Supreme Court which is pro-feds

6 d. Decentralization and Federal/Provincial Executive Federalism
federal powers limited by Quebec decision to "opt out" of national policies, including National Pension Plan, receive money for their own policies era of provincial government building, based partly on natural resource extraction--oil and gas in Western Canada provinces demand right to control immigration federal efforts to resolve Constitution lead to serious federal/provincial negotiations

7 Quebec Threat of Secession major challenge to Canada's future
a. Long struggle over status of French speaking Canadians in federal system "distinct status" with special political rights--separate but equal OR, Canada as unitary society with two cultures Quebec possess own religion, territory, language, history, all within a larger political system demands for greater authority in 1980s met with major concessions which have not solved problem

8 b. Historical separation and withdrawal from active political life.
French response in Quebec to 1759 was to withdraw from active politics in Quebec, Church kept people on farms, political life and economy in Montreal controlled by Anglos. federal guarantees for cultural and language protection outside Quebec not kept as Manitoba in 1890 ends provincial aid to Catholic schools Louis Riel Rebellion in 1870s in response to influx of English speakers into Manitoba followed by general withdrawal from national politics, turned inward c. Reawakening of Quebec "Quiet Revolution" of 1960s brings Quebecois into public life in Quebec 1971, Front de Liberation de Quebec (FLQ) crisis 1976, rise of Partis Quebecois under Levesque Bill 101 and repression of English language 1980 referendum on separation Trudeau in 1982 repatriated Constitution gives Quebec no special amending rights 1980s and rise of Quebec middle class and business elite--increased confidence

9 d. Negotiating a New Future
end of Trudeau era of pro-federalist French politicians Mulroney, 1984, efforts to forge new deal, Quebec demand for "distinct society," control over immigration, control over appointments to Supreme Court, right to constitutional amendments, limit on federal funding Meech Lake accord, granting "distinct society" undermined by nationwide hostility and native people who wanted same treatment Charlottetown Agreement, parties and elites agree but "distinct society" rejected at grass roots, especially after Trudeau critique 1995 referendum loses by .5% Rise of the Bloc Quebecois to fight for separatism at federal level

10 Canadian Party System a. Nature of Federal Party System:
1. One-Party Dominant Liberals ruled 65 of 87 years before 1984. from , very few years of non-Liberal party rule

11 Liberal and Progressive Conservatives
2. Two-Party System: Liberal and Progressive Conservatives little difference among parties, each basing power on links to different economic elites, no class basis to parties. regional and class issues resolved within parties parties build new coalition for each election, no popular ties to party policy preferences, little Party Identification 3. 2 1/2 Party System: growth of new parties in the West, demanding social welfare issues coopted by two dominant parties, bringing new ideas but no political change

12 4. Total Regionalization of Party System:
Canadian governments unable to form nationwide bases of power since 1993, major split with Reform party from West, Bloc Quebecois representing Quebec separatism, Liberals as party of Ontario and demise of Conservative party

13 b. Effect of Regionalism on Party System
Provincial and Federal parties of same name in conflict provincial parties composed of separate elites, organizations, financial base and platforms from central party provincial parties cannot get elected if they do not protect provincial rights provincial resources need to be protected from central extractions in West, natural gas, oil, uranium, with federal government establishing National Energy Policy and PetroCanada Ontario PCs and federal Liberals favoured pro-East policies for 50 years. PCs in Ontario and PCs in Alberta competed over tarrifs and energey prices. Maritime provinces too dependent on transfer payments

14 Party-Government Relations under Canadian Federalism

15 Percentage of Seats in Each Region Won By Governing Party in Canadian General Elections, 1867-1984

16 Canadian Results, 1988 & 1993 Elections

17 Federal-Provincial Conferences and Decline of Parties
1. Federal parties have excessive regional bases in 1980, Liberal government had two seats in Manitoba and no seats further West impossible to get regional interests represented in ruling party Caucus--meetings of members of ruling party in parliament limited national integration, recruitment does not foster integrationincreasing rise of

18 2. Decline of parties as major actor in conflict resolution
problems of federal system worked out in institutions of federalism, mainly Federal-Provincial First Ministers Conferences. meetings of federal and provincial official on over 100 issues reinforces provincialism other key issues such as industrial versus continental strategy resolved within bureaucracy, not by parties in parliament parties play little role in policy innovation

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