3 Logic of Prediction: Past Performance Predicts Future Performance Not specific enough to make selection decisionsJob titlesNumber of years of experienceWhat counts is the specific types of experiences required and the level of success at each
5 Resumes and Cover Letters Information provided is controlled by applicantInformation needs to be verified by other predictors to ensure accuracy and completenessMajor issuesLarge number received by organizationsFalsification and misrepresentation of information
6 Overview of Application Blanks What areas are covered?EducationTrainingJob experienceKey advantage -- Organization dictates information providedMajor issue -- Information requested shouldBe critical to job success andReflect KSAOs relevant to job
7 Reference ChecksApproach involves verifying applicant’s background via contact withPrior immediate supervisor(s) or coworkers, orHR department of current of previous companiesWhat are the possible problems?Same as problems with letters of recommendationReluctance of companies to provide requested information due to legal concerns
8 Fair Credit Reporting Act (1970) PurposeRegulates organization’s acquisition and use of consumer reports on job applicantsRequired complianceBefore obtaining a report, organization mustGive applicant notice in writing a report may be obtainedObtain written authorization from applicantIf an “adverse action” is taken, organization mustNotify (written, oral, electronic) applicant of adverse actionProvide information of consumer reporting agency to applicantProvide notice of applicant’s rights to applicantEnforcementEnforced by Federal Trade CommissionNoncompliance may result in fines up to $1,000
9 EEOC’s Enforcement Guidance on Criminal Records (2012) For arrest and conviction records in employment decisionsInquiring about arrest and/or conviction records, while not per se unlawful, can lead to potential discrimination issues if not handled properly.Blanket policies may result in:Disparate impactDisparate treatmentRace and national originDeterminations should be made on an individual case-by-case basis
10 EEOC’s Enforcement Guidance on Criminal Records (2012) Generally prohibits decisions based on arrests/convictions that are not job related and consistent with business necessity – criteria:Nature of the crime; andTime elapsed since it occurred; andIts relation to the nature of the job had or sought.Employers need toGive notice to applicant or employee that they have been screened out because of criminal conviction;Provide with opportunity to demonstrate that exclusion should not be applied due to their particular circumstances; andConsider whether the additional information provided warrants an exception to the exclusion and shows that the policy as applied is not job related and consistent with business necessity.
11 Use of Criminal Records - California Don’t ask applicants to disclose informationAbout an arrest or detention that did not result in conviction.Relating to a referral to or participation in a criminal diversion program (a work education program as part of probation).About convictions for most marijuana possession offenses more than two years old.You can’t seek the information from any other source, nor use it as a factor in hiring, promoting, training, or termination.You can ask employees and applicants about any arrest for which the employee or applicant is out on bail or out on their own recognizance pending trial.Certain exceptions exist for peace officers, health care employees, and people with access to drugs and medication.
12 Initial Interview Characteristics Video and computer interviews Begins process of necessary differentiationPurpose -- Screen out most obvious cases of person / job mismatchesLimitation -- Most expensive method of initial assessmentVideo and computer interviewsOffers cost savings
13 Evaluation of Initial Interview Guidelines to enhance usefulnessAsk questions assessing most basic KSAOsStick to basic, fundamental questions suitable for making rough cuts rather than subjective questionsKeep interviews briefAsk same questions of all applicants
14 Discretionary Assessment Methods Used to separate people who receive job offers from list of finalists (assumes each finalist is considered fully qualified for position)Often very subjective, relying heavily on intuition of decision makerFactors other than KSAOs are evaluatedAssess person/organization matchAssess motivation levelAssess people on relevant organizational citizenship behaviors
15 Contingent Assessment Methods “We offer you this job contingent upon ….”Might involve confirmation ofDrug test resultsMedical exam resultsBackground check results
17 Logic of Prediction: Past Performance Predicts Future Performance Advantages of internal over external selectionGreater depth and relevance of data available on internal candidatesGreater emphasis can be placed on samples and criteria rather than signs
18 Skills Inventory Use skills inventory for data on employees List of KSAOs held by each employeeRecords a small number of skills listed in generic categories, such as education, experience, and supervisory training received
20 Overview of Seniority and Experience DefinitionsSeniorityLength of service with organization, department, or jobExperienceNot only length of service but also kinds of activities an employee has undertakenWhy so widely used?Direct experience in a job content area reflects an accumulated stock of KSAOs necessary to perform jobInformation is easily and cheaply obtainedProtects employee from unfair treatment and favoritismPromoting senior or experienced employees is socially acceptable -- viewed as rewarding loyalty
21 Evaluation of Seniority and Experience Employees typically expect promotions will go to most senior or experienced employeeRelationship to job performanceSeniority is unrelated to job performanceExperience is moderately related to job performance, especially in the short runExperience is superior because it is:a more valid method than senioritymore likely to be content valid when past or present jobs are similar to the future jobExperience is unlikely to remedy initial performance difficulties of low-ability employeesis better suited to predict short-term rather than long-term potential
22 Job Knowledge TestsJob knowledge includes elements of both ability and seniorityMeasured by a paper-and-pencil test or a computerHolds great promise as a predictor of job performanceReflects an assessment of what was learned with experienceAlso captures cognitive ability
23 Performance Appraisal A possible predictor of future job performance is past job performance collected by a performance appraisal processAdvantagesReadily availableProbably capture both ability and motivationWeaknessesPotential lack of a direct correspondence between requirements of current job and requirements of position applied for
24 Principles of Promotion “Peter Principle”Employees tend to be promoted until they reach a position at which they cannot work competently.“Dilbert Principle” – 1990’sCompanies tend to systematically promote their least-competent employees to management (generally middle management), in order to limit the amount of damage they are capable of doing.
25 Discretionary Assessment Methods Narrows list of finalists to those who will receive job offersDecisions often made on basis ofOrganizational citizenship behaviorDifferences from external selectionPrevious finalists not receiving job offers do not simply disappear