Presentation on theme: "Technology Infrastructure: The Internet and the World Wide Web"— Presentation transcript:
1 Technology Infrastructure: The Internet and the World Wide Web Chapter 2Technology Infrastructure:The Internet and the World Wide Web
2 Infrastructure for Electronic Commerce What is the Internet?Internet – Intranet - ExtranetWeb-based Client/server ComputingGetting Connected
3 What is the Internet? Internet is a collection of computer networks All computers on the Internet must use same network & transport protocols TCP/IP
4 Who runs the Internet No one runs the internet Volunteer organizations suggest changes or handle administrationInternet SocietyInternet Assigned Number AuthorityInternet Research Task ForceNetwork Information CentersInternet Architecture Board
5 No single ownerBackbone is maintained by a few telecommunication companiesEveryone maintains their piece of the network - whether a university, business, or a single user at homeWhen you get connected the Internet grows by oneFailure of one network will not halt Internet traffic
8 Packet-Switched Networks A local area network (LAN) is a network of computers close together.A wide area network (WAN) is a network of computers connected over a great distance.Circuit switching is used in telephone communication.The Internet uses packet switchingFiles are broken down into small pieces (called packets) that are labeled with their origin, sequence, and destination addresses.
9 Routing Packets ‘routers’. ‘routing algorithms’ When packets leave a network to travel on the Internet, they are translated into a standard format by the router.Routers and the telecommunication lines connecting them are referred to as ‘the Internet backbone’.
11 The TCP/IP ProtocolThe Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) are the two protocols that support the Internet operation.TCP controls the assembly of a message into smaller packets before it is transmitted over the Internet.The IP protocol includes rules for routing individual data packets from their source to their destination.
12 IP AddressInternet addresses are based on a 32-bit number called an IP address.IP addresses appear as a series of up to four separate numbers delineated by a period.An address such as uniquely identifies a computer connected to the Internet.
13 Domain NamesTo make the numbering system easier to use, an alternative addressing method that uses words was created.An address, such as is called a domain name.The last part of a domain name (i.e., ‘.com’) is the most general identifier in the name and is called a ‘top-level domain’ (TLD).
15 Internet Services Protocols The Internet provides a variety of services to users known as ‘application services’.Application services include Web page delivery, network management tools, remote login, file transmission, electronic mail, and directory services.
17 SMTP, POP, and IMAPis sent across the Internet is managed and stored by mail servers.Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the standard for client program.Post Office Protocol (POP) is the standard for server program.The Interactive Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) is a newer protocol.
18 How Does The Internet Work? Server(business)WebsiteServer HardwareClient(customer)RoutersBackboneRoutersLink (ISP, LAN)Connections (Modem, ISDN, etc.)TCP/IPClient HardwareBrowserInternet Infrastructure
19 Web-based Client/server Computing The client is the Web browser, or Web browser and computer, that requests Web pages and services from a server.The server is the Web server software, or Web server and software and computer, that fills client requests for Web pages and services.Server
23 Three-Tier and N-Tier Client-Server Architectures
24 Internet – Intranet - Extranet The Internet is a network of networks composed of thousands of LANs and WANs.An intranet is a private Internet owned by a company.An extranet is an extended intranet, providing forexternal access.A firewall is a device, or set of devices, designed to protect a company's intranet from the Internet.
25 IntranetsAn intranet is a Web-based private network that hosts Internet applications on a LAN.Intranets are an extremely popular and low-cost way to distribute corporate information.The intranet infrastructure includes a TCP/IP network, Web authoring software, Web server hardware and software, Web clients, and a firewall server.
27 Connectivity Overview The most common connection options that ISPs offer to the Internet are telephone, broadband, leased-line, and wireless.Bandwidth is the amount of data that can travel through a communication line per unit of time.Bandwidth can differ for data traveling to or from the ISP.
28 Voice-Grade Telephone Connections The most common way to connect to an ISP is through a modem connected to your local telephone service provider.POTS uses existing telephone lines and an analog modem to provide a bandwidth of Kbps.ISDN uses the DSL protocol suite to offer bandwidths between Kbps.
29 Broadband Connections Connections that operate at speeds of greater than 200 Kbps are called broadband services.ADSL uses the DSL protocol to provide bandwidths between Kbps upstream and Mbps downstream.Cable modems provide transmission speeds between 300 Kbps-1 Mbps from the client to the server and a downstream rate as high as 10 Mbps.Satellite microwave transmissions handle internet downloads at speeds around 500 Kbps.
30 Leased-Line Connections Large firms can connect to an ISP using higher-bandwidth connections that they can lease from telecommunications carriers.A ‘T1’ line operates at Mbps and a ‘T3’ line operates at Mbps.
31 Wireless ConnectionsMany researchers and business managers see great potential for wireless networks and the devices connected to them.The term m-commerce (mobile commerce) is used to describe the kinds of resources people might want to access using devices that have wireless connections.
32 Getting Connected Decide Business Objective (class #4) Research Connection OptionsFind an Internet Service Provider (ISP)Contract for Internet ConnectionBuy Hardware & SoftwareObtain Domain NameTurn on the Switch
33 Research Connection Options Dialup optionsModemISDNDedicated Connection OptionsFrame RelayT1T3
34 Find an Internet Service Provider (ISP) ISP – is the company that you will contract with for Internet connectivityBasically two typesCommercial online servicesie AOL, MSNEveryone elseCase study 6-2 the listList of ISPs: thelist.internet.com
35 Buy Hardware & Software Depending on level of internet useModem, computer, server for each service, router, gateway,CSU/DSU boxSoftwareClient software for each internet toolServer software for each internet toolSecurity, transaction software
36 Obtain Domain NameDomain Name – your identity on the internet-- for the internet it is how the info gets routed. ( easier than IP #).caCanada.comCommercial users.netNetwork providers.edueducation.orgorganization.govU.S. gov..milU.S. military.jpJapanDomain Type
38 Internet Address: Domain Name System - WWW Folder orDirectoryWWWLanguage(protocol)File orDocumentWhat Classification?com - commercialedu - educationalgov - gevernmentName ofComputer ServerRegistered Domain Name (Name of Organization)
39 Internet AddressInternet service providers or a hosting service may obtain the domain for you for a fee, but…if their name is listed as administrative contact with InterNIC, you may have trouble switching your domain name to a new serviceMake sure your name is listed as the administrative contact with InterNICDetermine who “owns” yours:rs.internic.net/cgi-bin/whois