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Technology Infrastructure: The Internet and the World Wide Web

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Presentation on theme: "Technology Infrastructure: The Internet and the World Wide Web"— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology Infrastructure: The Internet and the World Wide Web
Chapter 2 Technology Infrastructure: The Internet and the World Wide Web

2 Infrastructure for Electronic Commerce
What is the Internet? Internet – Intranet - Extranet Web-based Client/server Computing Getting Connected

3 What is the Internet? Internet is a collection of computer networks
All computers on the Internet must use same network & transport protocols TCP/IP

4 Who runs the Internet No one runs the internet
Volunteer organizations suggest changes or handle administration Internet Society Internet Assigned Number Authority Internet Research Task Force Network Information Centers Internet Architecture Board

5 No single owner Backbone is maintained by a few telecommunication companies Everyone maintains their piece of the network - whether a university, business, or a single user at home When you get connected the Internet grows by one Failure of one network will not halt Internet traffic



8 Packet-Switched Networks
A local area network (LAN) is a network of computers close together. A wide area network (WAN) is a network of computers connected over a great distance. Circuit switching is used in telephone communication. The Internet uses packet switching Files are broken down into small pieces (called packets) that are labeled with their origin, sequence, and destination addresses.

9 Routing Packets ‘routers’. ‘routing algorithms’
When packets leave a network to travel on the Internet, they are translated into a standard format by the router. Routers and the telecommunication lines connecting them are referred to as ‘the Internet backbone’.

10 Routing Packets

11 The TCP/IP Protocol The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) are the two protocols that support the Internet operation. TCP controls the assembly of a message into smaller packets before it is transmitted over the Internet. The IP protocol includes rules for routing individual data packets from their source to their destination.

12 IP Address Internet addresses are based on a 32-bit number called an IP address. IP addresses appear as a series of up to four separate numbers delineated by a period. An address such as uniquely identifies a computer connected to the Internet.

13 Domain Names To make the numbering system easier to use, an alternative addressing method that uses words was created. An address, such as is called a domain name. The last part of a domain name (i.e., ‘.com’) is the most general identifier in the name and is called a ‘top-level domain’ (TLD).

14 Top-level Domain Names

15 Internet Services Protocols
The Internet provides a variety of services to users known as ‘application services’. Application services include Web page delivery, network management tools, remote login, file transmission, electronic mail, and directory services.

16 Internet Applications
Electronic Mail Telnet FTP

17 SMTP, POP, and IMAP is sent across the Internet is managed and stored by mail servers. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the standard for client program. Post Office Protocol (POP) is the standard for server program. The Interactive Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) is a newer protocol.

18 How Does The Internet Work?
Server (business) Website Server Hardware Client (customer) Routers Backbone Routers Link (ISP, LAN) Connections (Modem, ISDN, etc.) TCP/IP Client Hardware Browser Internet Infrastructure

19 Web-based Client/server Computing
The client is the Web browser, or Web browser and computer, that requests Web pages and services from a server. The server is the Web server software, or Web server and software and computer, that fills client requests for Web pages and services. Server

20 Client/Server Architecture
URL Database Query Disks for Storage Server Response & Results TCP/IP HTTP Client Requests & Parameters

21 Web Clients and Web Servers

22 Two-Tier Client-Server Architecture

23 Three-Tier and N-Tier Client-Server Architectures

24 Internet – Intranet - Extranet
The Internet is a network of networks composed of thousands of LANs and WANs. An intranet is a private Internet owned by a company. An extranet is an extended intranet, providing for external access. A firewall is a device, or set of devices, designed to protect a company's intranet from the Internet.

25 Intranets An intranet is a Web-based private network that hosts Internet applications on a LAN. Intranets are an extremely popular and low-cost way to distribute corporate information. The intranet infrastructure includes a TCP/IP network, Web authoring software, Web server hardware and software, Web clients, and a firewall server.

26 Intranets and Extranets

27 Connectivity Overview
The most common connection options that ISPs offer to the Internet are telephone, broadband, leased-line, and wireless. Bandwidth is the amount of data that can travel through a communication line per unit of time. Bandwidth can differ for data traveling to or from the ISP.

28 Voice-Grade Telephone Connections
The most common way to connect to an ISP is through a modem connected to your local telephone service provider. POTS uses existing telephone lines and an analog modem to provide a bandwidth of Kbps. ISDN uses the DSL protocol suite to offer bandwidths between Kbps.

29 Broadband Connections
Connections that operate at speeds of greater than 200 Kbps are called broadband services. ADSL uses the DSL protocol to provide bandwidths between Kbps upstream and Mbps downstream. Cable modems provide transmission speeds between 300 Kbps-1 Mbps from the client to the server and a downstream rate as high as 10 Mbps. Satellite microwave transmissions handle internet downloads at speeds around 500 Kbps.

30 Leased-Line Connections
Large firms can connect to an ISP using higher-bandwidth connections that they can lease from telecommunications carriers. A ‘T1’ line operates at Mbps and a ‘T3’ line operates at Mbps.

31 Wireless Connections Many researchers and business managers see great potential for wireless networks and the devices connected to them. The term m-commerce (mobile commerce) is used to describe the kinds of resources people might want to access using devices that have wireless connections.

32 Getting Connected Decide Business Objective (class #4)
Research Connection Options Find an Internet Service Provider (ISP) Contract for Internet Connection Buy Hardware & Software Obtain Domain Name Turn on the Switch

33 Research Connection Options
Dialup options Modem ISDN Dedicated Connection Options Frame Relay T1 T3

34 Find an Internet Service Provider (ISP)
ISP – is the company that you will contract with for Internet connectivity Basically two types Commercial online services ie AOL, MSN Everyone else Case study 6-2 the list List of ISPs:

35 Buy Hardware & Software
Depending on level of internet use Modem, computer, server for each service, router, gateway,CSU/DSU box Software Client software for each internet tool Server software for each internet tool Security, transaction software

36 Obtain Domain Name Domain Name – your identity on the internet-- for the internet it is how the info gets routed. ( easier than IP #) .ca Canada .com Commercial users .net Network providers .edu education .org organization .gov U.S. gov. .mil U.S. military .jp Japan Domain Type

37 How to get a Domain Name Case study 6-3

38 Internet Address: Domain Name System - WWW
Folder or Directory WWW Language (protocol) File or Document What Classification? com - commercial edu - educational gov - gevernment Name of Computer Server Registered Domain Name (Name of Organization)

39 Internet Address Internet service providers or a hosting service may obtain the domain for you for a fee, but… if their name is listed as administrative contact with InterNIC, you may have trouble switching your domain name to a new service Make sure your name is listed as the administrative contact with InterNIC Determine who “owns” yours:

40 Turn on the Switch

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