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Designing Reading Instruction to Optimize Children’s Achievement How should research-based evidence guide us?* Jeanne R. Paratore Boston University 605.

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Presentation on theme: "Designing Reading Instruction to Optimize Children’s Achievement How should research-based evidence guide us?* Jeanne R. Paratore Boston University 605."— Presentation transcript:

1 Designing Reading Instruction to Optimize Children’s Achievement How should research-based evidence guide us?* Jeanne R. Paratore Boston University 605 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA 02215 617-353-2385 **The information on these slides is based on a review of the work of others; please consult attached list for selected references.

2 What is EVIDENCE-BASED READING INSTRUCTION? a particular program or collection of instructional practices that have a proven record of success – objective – valid – systematic – refereed – generalizable

3 Evidence-based programs focus on MATERIALS. Evidence-based practices focus on TEACHING ACTIONS.

4 Quest for BEST PROGRAM has been elusive. “Children learn to read by a variety of materials and methods…No one approach is so distinctly better in all situations and respects than the others that it should be considered the one best method and the one to be used exclusively.” (Bond & Dykstra, 1997, p. 416)

5 Quest for BEST PRACTICES has been fruitful. The results of the First-Grade studies again provide a relevant starting place. Although findings failed to show superiority of any particular approach or program, evidence did indicate strong relationships between particular practices and high achievement.

6 Research-Based Practices 1. Engage children in purposeful, authentic reading tasks 2. Use high-quality literature 3. Provide intensive, explicit, word study instruction 4. Provide explicit, strategic comprehension instruction 5. Provide explicit, strategic writing instruction 6. Provide whole, small group, and individual instruction 7. Engage all children in the regular-education curriculum 8. Provide extensive, in-class reading time 9. Integrate instruction in reading and writing 10. Engage in continuous, multiple methods of assessment

7 The teacher’s knowledge about reading and writing development matters.

8 Effective teachers know that becoming a successful reader/writer requires the development of multiple literacies. the ability to read words quickly and fluently the knowledge of language and concepts necessary to understand and respond to reading the knowledge of comprehension strategies necessary to fully understand and respond to reading

9 Effective teachers also know that different instructional experiences and a variety of texts support different literacies. Frequent practice with easy, readable text builds word knowledge and fluency. Experiences with stories that are rich and complex in both language and event structures support development of oral and written language. Opportunities to respond individually and in groups or pairs support reading comprehension.

10 Classroom organization and routines matter.

11 To optimize children’s opportunities to read, effective teachers provide: Easy access to books and writing materials Purposeful wall displays Classroom routines that require purposeful reading, writing, listening, and speaking

12 Systematic and balanced attention to the range of children’s reading needs matters.

13 A Typical Day in an Effective Reading Classroom Community Reading –Time each day when children read (or listen to) grade-appropriate text Just Right Reading –Time each day when children receive instruction in text that will support the development of particular word level and comprehension strategies On Your Own Reading –Time each day when children read anything of their own choosing

14 Community Reading Story Introduction (Whole Class) –Preview text, develop background knowledge, make predictions Reading the Selection (Needs-Based Groups) –No Help With Help (Teacher-led Group) –Silent reading - Read aloud by teacher –Partner rereading - Rereading with teacher or partner –Partner response - Group Response (oral) –Individual response - Individual Response (Written) Responding to the Selection (Heterogeneous Groups) –Books Club (Raphael & McMahon, 1997)

15 Just Right Reading Supporting Struggling Readers –Instruction in word level strategies using easy text –Reading and rereading of easy books Supporting Average and Above Average Readers –Instruction in word level and comprehension strategies using Community Reading Text –Reading beyond Community Reading Text –Serving as peer or cross-age tutor

16 On Your Own Reading Children read a book or text of their own choosing Children may read individually or in pairs Teacher may intervene if child consistently or repeatedly chooses books too easy or too difficult

17 Reading choices matter.

18 Children need an abundant collection of high quality books diverse in: Levels of difficulty Genre Topic Cultural representation

19 Explicit instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics matters.

20 Effective word study instruction: Begins with phonemic awareness Encourages invented or temporary spellings Focuses on reading words, not learning rules Focuses on letter/sound relationships, including individual phonemes and phonograms as patterns Emphasizes transfer of word study strategies to in- context reading and writing Emphasizes fluency

21 Explicit and Strategic instruction in comprehension matters.

22 Effective instruction focuses on essential comprehension routines. Focusing attention and setting purpose Organizing information during and after reading Elaborating on ideas and clarifying information Summarizing Self-monitoring and self-correcting

23 EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION scaffolds learning by gradually releasing responsibility from the teacher to children. Demonstration Guided Practice Independent Practice

24 STRATEGIC INSTRUCTION prepares the child to perform independently. Explains what to do Shows how to do it Explains when and why the strategy is useful

25 Response to reading matters.

26 Teachers need to consider types, contexts, and purposes for response. Types of response –Journal writing –Book talks Contexts for response –Collaborative –Individual Purposes of response –Aesthetic –Efferent

27 Engaging students in self- assessment matters.

28 Effective teachers consider frequency, context, and types of self-assessment opportunities. Frequency –End of task –End of day –End of “unit” Context –Individual –Group Type –Oral –Written

29 Assessment matters.

30 Assessment that informs instruction: Utilizes multiple measures Is continuous Is embedded in the instructional context Is consequential in future learning tasks

31 Running records provide documentation of children’s fluency at the word level. Retellings provide information about –comprehension –organization of recall –discourse styles –elaboration and clarification

32 Book Talks provide documentation of –comprehension –oral language –participation styles Writing samples provide documentation of –phonemic awareness –spelling –comprehension –grammatic understanding

33 The amount of text that children read matters.

34 Teachers who make a difference in children’s reading achievement: l have high expectations for all children l include all children in “regular” curriculum l provide instruction in contexts other than whole group l provide lots of time for children to read and reread text l provide struggling readers both extra help and extra time l provide explicit instruction in word study AND comprehension strategies l provide explicit instruction and time to write l integrate instruction in reading and writing l emphasize reading and writing as social activities l continue to study the ways children learn to read and write

35 “Best practices can be described, but not prescribed.” Gambrell & Mazzoni, 1999, p. 13

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