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TECHNOLOGY GUIDE 5 Basics of the Internet and the World Wide Web.

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Presentation on theme: "TECHNOLOGY GUIDE 5 Basics of the Internet and the World Wide Web."— Presentation transcript:

1 TECHNOLOGY GUIDE 5 Basics of the Internet and the World Wide Web

2 The Internet Began as a government- sponsored network for research and education Became commercialized in 1993 with the World Wide Web innovation Based on two protocols (TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Internet Protocol (IP) Most users connect to it through an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

3 Architecture of the Internet NAP – Network Access Point MAE – Metropolitan Area Exchange

4 The SONET Hierarchy Internet Backbone Circuit Capacity See also the Mapnet projectMapnet Type of CircuitData Rate T11.544 Mbps T344.74 Mbps OC-151.84 Mbps OC-3155.52 Mbps OC-12622.08 Mbps OC-241.244 Gbps OC-482.488 Gbps OC-1929.95 Gbps OC-76839.81 Gbps OC – Optical Carrier SONET– Synchronous Optical Networking

5 Identifying Computers on the Internet (Addressing) Domain name (symbolic address) e.g., www.csun.edu, www.yahoo.comwww.csun.eduwww.yahoo.com IP Address (numeric address) e.g., 130.166.1.254, 130.166.105.77 URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) – identify paths to a Web page or document e.g., http://www.csun.edu/webmail

6 How the Internet Works – Packet Switching Packet Switching Allows millions of users to send large and small chunks of data across the Internet concurrently Based on the concept of turn taking, packets from each user are alternated in the shared network Packet Switching Allows millions of users to send large and small chunks of data across the Internet concurrently Based on the concept of turn taking, packets from each user are alternated in the shared network

7 Another Look at Packet Switching

8 How TCP/IP Work to Deliver Messages Example: Delivering a message from Computer A to Computer D (Computer A) TCP - Breaks message into data packets IP - Adds address of destination Computer D 1 (Computer D) TCP - Checks for missing packets and reassembles message 3 (Router) Reads IP Address of packet, routes message to Network 2 2

9 Accessing the Internet (the Last Mile) Amdahl’s Law: A network connection can be no faster than its slowest link Speed of the Internet often limited by the local access technology (the last mile) Broadband Internet Access (FCC): 768 kbps minimum For HD streaming video, need at least 5 Mbps How fast is your Internet access?fast

10 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Combine voice and high-speed data on a single phone line Users do not share access lines 1.5 – 9 Mbps downstream, 16 – 640 Kbps upstream Distance-sensitive Telephone Network Telephone Network ISP DSL Modem DSL Modem Copper Phone Line Voice channel Upstream data channel Downstream data channel

11 Cable Modem Allocates a small portion of a cable TV system’s high bandwidth media for data transmission 1.5 – 30 Mbps downstream, 384Kbps – 1.5 Mbps upstream

12 Fixed or Mobile Wireless Access Cellular network Internet-enabled cellular phones User can move within cellular coverage area Wi-Fi (WLAN) User can move within range of a Hot Spot Fixed wireless (WiMax) with ranges up to 50 km

13 Fiber to the X Service Fiber to the Node Fiber to the Curb Fiber to the Building Fiber to the Home Sweden leads the world in FTTH Average download speed is 86 Mbps 86 Mbps Source: Wikipedia


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