 # Hidden Markov Model (HMM) Tagging  Using an HMM to do POS tagging  HMM is a special case of Bayesian inference.

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Hidden Markov Model (HMM) Tagging  Using an HMM to do POS tagging  HMM is a special case of Bayesian inference

 Goal: maximize P(word|tag) x P(tag|previous n tags)  P(word|tag) word/lexical likelihood probability that given this tag, we have this word NOT probability that this word has this tag modeled through language model (word-tag matrix) ‏  P(tag|previous n tags) ‏ tag sequence likelihood probability that this tag follows these previous tags modeled through language model (tag-tag matrix) ‏ Hidden Markov Model (HMM) Taggers Lexical information Syntagmatic information

POS tagging as a sequence classification task  We are given a sentence (an “observation” or “sequence of observations”) ‏ Secretariat is expected to race tomorrow. sequence of n words w1…wn.  What is the best sequence of tags which corresponds to this sequence of observations?  Probabilistic/Bayesian view: Consider all possible sequences of tags Out of this universe of sequences, choose the tag sequence which is most probable given the observation sequence of n words w1…wn.

Getting to HMM  Let T = t 1,t 2,…,t n  Let W = w 1,w 2,…,w n  Goal: Out of all sequences of tags t 1 …t n, get the the most probable sequence of POS tags T underlying the observed sequence of words w 1,w 2,…,w n  Hat ^ means “our estimate of the best = the most probable tag sequence”  Argmax x f(x) means “the x such that f(x) is maximized” it maximizes our estimate of the best tag sequence

Bayes Rule We can drop the denominator: it does not change for each tag sequence; we are looking for the best tag sequence for the same observation, for the same fixed set of words

Bayes Rule

Likelihood and prior

Likelihood and prior Further Simplifications n 1. the probability of a word appearing depends only on its own POS tag, i.e, independent of other words around it 2. BIGRAM assumption: the probability of a tag appearing depends only on the previous tag 3. The most probable tag sequence estimated by the bigram tagger

Likelihood and prior Further Simplifications 2. BIGRAM assumption: the probability of a tag appearing depends only on the previous tag. Bigrams are groups of two written letters, two syllables, or two words; they are a special case of N- gram. Bigrams are used as the basis for simple statistical analysis of text The bigram assumption is related to the first-order Markov assumption

Likelihood and prior Further Simplifications 3. The most probable tag sequence estimated by the bigram tagger n biagram assumption ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Probability estimates  Tag transition probabilities p(t i |t i-1 ) ‏ Determiners likely to precede adjectives and nouns  That/DT flight/NN  The/DT yellow/JJ hat/NN  So we expect P(NN|DT) and P(JJ|DT) to be high

Estimating probability  Tag transition probabilities p(t i |t i-1 ) ‏ Compute P(NN|DT) by counting in a labeled corpus: # of times DT is followed by NN

Two kinds of probabilities  Word likelihood probabilities p(w i |t i ) ‏ P(is|VBZ) = probability of VBZ (3sg Pres verb) being “is” Compute P(is|VBZ) by counting in a labeled corpus: If we were expecting a third person singular verb, how likely is it that this verb would be is?

An Example: the verb “race” Two possible tags:  Secretariat/NNP is/VBZ expected/VBN to/TO race /VB tomorrow/NR  People/NNS continue/VB to/TO inquire/VB the/DT reason/NN for/IN the/DT race /NN for/IN outer/JJ space/NN How do we pick the right tag?

Disambiguating “race”

 P(NN|TO) =.00047  P(VB|TO) =.83 The tag transition probabilities P(NN|TO) and P(VB|TO) answer the question: ‘How likely are we to expect verb/noun given the previous tag TO?’  P(race|NN) =.00057  P(race|VB) =.00012 Lexical likelihoods from the Brown corpus for ‘race’ given a POS tag NN or VB.

Disambiguating “race”  P(NR|VB) =.0027  P(NR|NN) =.0012 tag sequence probability for the likelihood of an adverb occurring given the previous tag verb or noun  P(VB|TO)P(NR|VB)P(race|VB) =.00000027  P(NN|TO)P(NR|NN)P(race|NN)=.00000000032 Multiply the lexical likelihoods with the tag sequence probabilities: the verb wins

Hidden Markov Models  What we’ve described with these two kinds of probabilities is a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) ‏  Let’s just spend a bit of time tying this into the model  In order to define HMM, we will first introduce the Markov Chain, or observable Markov Model.

Definitions  A weighted finite-state automaton adds probabilities to the arcs The sum of the probabilities leaving any arc must sum to one  A Markov chain is a special case of a WFST in which the input sequence uniquely determines which states the automaton will go through  Markov chains can’t represent inherently ambiguous problems Useful for assigning probabilities to unambiguous sequences

 States Q = q 1, q 2 …q N;  Observations O = o 1, o 2 …o N; Each observation is a symbol from a vocabulary V = {v 1,v 2,…v V }  Transition probabilities (prior) ‏ Transition probability matrix A = {a ij }  Observation likelihoods (likelihood) ‏ Output probability matrix B={b i (o t )} a set of observation likelihoods, each expressing the probability of an observation o t being generated from a state i, emission probabilities  Special initial probability vector   i the probability that the HMM will start in state i, each  i expresses the probability p(q i |START) ‏ Hidden Markov Models Formal definition

Assumptions  Markov assumption: the probability of a particular state depends only on the previous state  Output-independence assumption: the probability of an output observation depends only on the state that produced that observation

HMM Taggers  Two kinds of probabilities A transition probabilities (PRIOR) B observation likelihoods (LIKELIHOOD)  HMM Taggers choose the tag sequence which maximizes the product of word likelihood and tag sequence probability

Weighted FSM corresponding to hidden states of HMM

observation likelihoods for POS HMM

Transition matrix for the POS HMM

The output matrix for the POS HMM

HMM Taggers  The probabilities are trained on hand-labeled training corpora (training set) ‏  Combine different N-gram levels  Evaluated by comparing their output from a test set to human labels for that test set (Gold Standard)

The Viterbi Algorithm  best tag sequence for "John likes to fish in the sea"?  efficiently computes the most likely state sequence given a particular output sequence  based on dynamic programming

A smaller example 0.6 b q r start end 0.5 0.7  What is the best sequence of states for the input string “bbba”?  Computing all possible paths and finding the one with the max probability is exponential a 0.4 0.8 0.2 b a 11 0.3 0.5

Viterbi for POS tagging Let: n = nb of words in sentence to tag (nb of input tokens) ‏ T = nb of tags in the tag set (nb of states) ‏ vit = path probability matrix (viterbi) ‏ vit[i,j] = probability of being at state (tag) j at word i state = matrix to recover the nodes of the best path (best tag sequence) state[i+1,j] = the state (tag) of the incoming arc that led to this most probable state j at word i+1 // Initialization vit[1,PERIOD]:=1.0 // pretend that there is a period before // our sentence (start tag = PERIOD) ‏ vit[1,t]:=0.0 for t ≠ PERIOD

Viterbi for POS tagging (con’t) ‏ // Induction (build the path probability matrix) ‏ for i:=1 to n step 1 do // for all words in the sentence for all tags t j do // for all possible tags // store the max prob of the path vit[i+1,t j ] := max 1≤k≤T (vit[i,t k ] x P(w i+1 |t j ) x P(t j | t k )) // store the actual state path[i+1,t j ] := argmax 1≤k≤T ( vit[i,t k ] x P(w i+1 |t j ) x P(t j | t k )) ‏ end //Termination and path-readout bestState n+1 := argmax 1≤j≤T vit[n+1,j] for j:=n to 1 step -1 do // for all the words in the sentence bestState j := path[i+1, bestState j+1 ] end P(bestState 1,…, bestState n ) := max 1≤j≤T vit[n+1,j] emission probability state transition probability probability of best path leading to state t k at word i

 in bigram POS tagging, we condition a tag only on the preceding tag  why not... use more context (ex. use trigram model)  more precise:  “is clearly marked” --> verb, past participle  “he clearly marked” --> verb, past tense  combine trigram, bigram, unigram models condition on words too  but with an n-gram approach, this is too costly (too many parameters to model) ‏ Possible improvements

Further issues with Markov Model tagging  Unknown words are a problem since we don’t have the required probabilities. Possible solutions: Assign the word probabilities based on corpus- wide distribution of POS ??? Use morphological cues (capitalization, suffix) to assign a more calculated guess.  Using higher order Markov models: Using a trigram model captures more context However, data sparseness is much more of a problem.

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