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The Age of Petipa Part 1: Marius Petipa.

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1 The Age of Petipa Part 1: Marius Petipa

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3 Marius Petipa March 11, 1818 – July 14, 1910
Known as “the father of classical ballet” Born in Marseilles, France Moved to St. Petersburg, Russia in 1847 Choreographed more than 60 ballets

4 Family history Jean Antoine Petipa (father) was a famous French dancer and teacher. Lucien Petipa (older brother) was a world famous dancer. At 7yrs old Jean began teaching Marius ballet. Marius HATED it! (But he was talented.)

5 Dance Scene of the 19th Century
French was the international language Famous dancers of the day: Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Carlotta Grisi, Lucile Grahn, Fanny Cerrito Famed ballet masters: Jules Perrot, Filippo Taglioni, Arthur Saint Leon Famed teachers: Carlo Blasis, Enrico Cecchetti, Auguste Vestris

6 Marie Taglioni Born “malformed” for dance. Not very pretty. Public persona: shy, chaste, ethereal. Trained by father. Danced for Paris Opera, eventually left to tour internationally.

7 Fanny Elssler Taglioni’s riva! From Vienna, Austria. Known for bravura, beauty and sex appeal.

8 Pas de Quatre By Jules Perrot. Brought together the 4 greats of the day. Big time DIVAS!!! Lots of rivalry… Elssler turned it down and was replaced by Fanny Cerrito. They danced in order of age/seniority to avoid further conflicts

9 Getting back to Marius…
General education from Grande College in Brussels Made performance debut in 1831 in father’s production of La Dansomanie Belgian revolution made family move to Bordeaux then Nantes, where Petipa became a principal. After touring North America, returned to Bordeaux to continue dancing and begin experimenting with choreography. Partnered Carlotta Grisi in La Peri.

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11 Travels abroad Moved to Madrid, Spain
had a love affair with wife of Marquis de Chateaubriand (member of French Embassy) Challenged to a duel by Chateaubriand… Promptly left Spain and never returned 1847 moved to St Petersburg, Russia Behavior in Spain was a bit scandalous.

12 Russian Connection End of 17th century, Peter the Great evolves arts in Russia by inviting artists from other countries. 1738 Empress Anna begins the Imperial Ballet School. Most of the great European dancers performed in Russia. Taglioni’s partner, Christian Johanson, stayed as teacher and choreographer.

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14 Petipa In Russia Continued dancing, staging works and dabbling in choreography 1854 marries ballerina Maria Sergeyevna Surovshchikova 1858 retires form dancing, focuses energy on choreography Created A Regency Marriage, The Parisian Market, & The Blue Dhalia for wife.

15 Politics of dance 1862 La Fille du Pharaon
Appointed company ballet master 1869 replaces Saint-Leon as director of Maryinsky Established “ballet a grand spectacle” 1882 married ballerina Lubova Leonidovna Retired 1903 after The Magic Mirror failed Petipa used power of popularity to unseat St-Leon. St Leon backed Mafra Muravieva; Petipa backed wife. Public rivalry between the ballerinas. Magic Mirror- fasions had changed. Public looking for something new La Bayadere- Prince of Wales had visited India

16 Petipa’s impact on ballet
Established Classical over Romantic by focusing on technical virtuosity rather than pantomime or dramatic expression Emphasized central role of the female ballerina and bravura steps of the male danseur Used elaborate stage designs and large casts Created choreographic formula still used today Classical v Romantic For centuries men had dominated the stage, Now men had to carry around the ballerina and show her off and then jump and turn. Stages harkened back to the royal spectacles of Louis IVX. Grand pas de deux, corps frames principals

17 Petipa ballets Don Quixote La Bayadere Bluebeard Cinderella Raymonda
Harliquinade Le Corsair

18 Tchaikovsky ballets Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky composed: Swan Lake
Sleeping Beauty The Nutcracker

19 Sleeping Beauty 1890

20 The Nutcracker 1892

21 The Nutcracker (Sugarplum pas de deux)

22 Swan Lake 1895

23 Lev Ivanov February 1834- July 1901 Incredibly musical
1852 joined Imperial Ballet under Jules Perrot 1885 appointed assistant to Petipa at Maryinksy Theater In shadow of others throughout career Could play entire score of ballet by ear. School director had no patience for his love of music. Ivanov was modest and indecisive. Petipa egotistical and controlling.

24 Ivanov’s choreographic contribution
Tendency towards Romantic over Classical Petipa took full credit despite Ivanov’s contribuions Believed to have choreographed : Sleeping Beauty romantic vision scene Swan Lake Act 2 The Nutcracker (Petipa was sick, had to give credit)

25 Changes and endings Early 1900s fashions and audience interests began shift away from Petipa’s Classical style 1903 Petipa creates The Magic Mirror under pressure to change… flopped miserably 1903 retired 1906 Petipa’s memoirs are published; met with criticism and attacks 1907 moves to southern Russia because of bad health 1910 dies


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