3 Marius Petipa March 11, 1818 – July 14, 1910 Known as “the father of classical ballet”Born in Marseilles, FranceMoved to St. Petersburg, Russia in 1847Choreographed more than 60 ballets
4 Family historyJean Antoine Petipa (father) was a famous French dancer and teacher.Lucien Petipa (older brother) was a world famous dancer.At 7yrs old Jean began teaching Marius ballet.Marius HATED it! (But he was talented.)
5 Dance Scene of the 19th Century French was the international languageFamous dancers of the day: Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Carlotta Grisi, Lucile Grahn, Fanny CerritoFamed ballet masters: Jules Perrot, Filippo Taglioni, Arthur Saint LeonFamed teachers: Carlo Blasis, Enrico Cecchetti, Auguste Vestris
6 Marie TaglioniBorn “malformed” for dance. Not very pretty. Public persona: shy, chaste, ethereal. Trained by father. Danced for Paris Opera, eventually left to tour internationally.
7 Fanny ElsslerTaglioni’s riva! From Vienna, Austria. Known for bravura, beauty and sex appeal.
8 Pas de QuatreBy Jules Perrot. Brought together the 4 greats of the day. Big time DIVAS!!! Lots of rivalry… Elssler turned it down and was replaced by Fanny Cerrito. They danced in order of age/seniority to avoid further conflicts
9 Getting back to Marius… General education from Grande College in BrusselsMade performance debut in 1831 in father’s production of La DansomanieBelgian revolution made family move to Bordeaux then Nantes, where Petipa became a principal.After touring North America, returned to Bordeaux to continue dancing and begin experimenting with choreography.Partnered Carlotta Grisi in La Peri.
11 Travels abroad Moved to Madrid, Spain had a love affair with wife of Marquis de Chateaubriand (member of French Embassy)Challenged to a duel by Chateaubriand…Promptly left Spain and never returned1847 moved to St Petersburg, RussiaBehavior in Spain was a bit scandalous.
12 Russian ConnectionEnd of 17th century, Peter the Great evolves arts in Russia by inviting artists from other countries.1738 Empress Anna begins the Imperial Ballet School.Most of the great European dancers performed in Russia.Taglioni’s partner, Christian Johanson, stayed as teacher and choreographer.
14 Petipa In RussiaContinued dancing, staging works and dabbling in choreography1854 marries ballerina Maria Sergeyevna Surovshchikova1858 retires form dancing, focuses energy on choreographyCreated A Regency Marriage, The Parisian Market, & The Blue Dhalia for wife.
15 Politics of dance 1862 La Fille du Pharaon Appointed company ballet master1869 replaces Saint-Leon as director of MaryinskyEstablished “ballet a grand spectacle”1882 married ballerina Lubova LeonidovnaRetired 1903 after The Magic Mirror failedPetipa used power of popularity to unseat St-Leon. St Leon backed Mafra Muravieva; Petipa backed wife. Public rivalry between the ballerinas.Magic Mirror- fasions had changed. Public looking for something newLa Bayadere- Prince of Wales had visited India
16 Petipa’s impact on ballet Established Classical over Romantic by focusing on technical virtuosity rather than pantomime or dramatic expressionEmphasized central role of the female ballerina and bravura steps of the male danseurUsed elaborate stage designs and large castsCreated choreographic formula still used todayClassical v RomanticFor centuries men had dominated the stage, Now men had to carry around the ballerina and show her off and then jump and turn.Stages harkened back to the royal spectacles of Louis IVX.Grand pas de deux, corps frames principals
17 Petipa ballets Don Quixote La Bayadere Bluebeard Cinderella Raymonda HarliquinadeLe Corsair
23 Lev Ivanov February 1834- July 1901 Incredibly musical 1852 joined Imperial Ballet under Jules Perrot1885 appointed assistant to Petipa at Maryinksy TheaterIn shadow of others throughout careerCould play entire score of ballet by ear. School director had no patience for his love of music.Ivanov was modest and indecisive. Petipa egotistical and controlling.
24 Ivanov’s choreographic contribution Tendency towards Romantic over ClassicalPetipa took full credit despite Ivanov’s contribuionsBelieved to have choreographed :Sleeping Beauty romantic vision sceneSwan Lake Act 2The Nutcracker (Petipa was sick, had to give credit)
25 Changes and endingsEarly 1900s fashions and audience interests began shift away from Petipa’s Classical style1903 Petipa creates The Magic Mirror under pressure to change… flopped miserably1903 retired1906 Petipa’s memoirs are published; met with criticism and attacks1907 moves to southern Russia because of bad health1910 dies